Andrew Jackson

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Andrew Jackson

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Jackson felt that over time, the offices of the federal system had grown mold to a uniform party. He proceeded to seek diversity amongst officers, and while he removed no more officials than Jefferson, he succeeded in diversifying the system.

Since he believed that the power belonged to the people, Jackson instituted a new method for selecting presidential candidates. While previously there was held a Congressional Caucus, Jackson initiated a national nominating convention in order that the people might elect their candidates.

Jackson responding to challenge:
Nullification crisis
Jackson was presented with the problem of dealing with angry South Carolinians who were angered by tariffs.

His vice-president, Calhoun, a native to the protesting state, resigned from the vice-presidency to aid his state. He aided in preventing their secession from the Union, as he joined the pro-nullification group of elected officials.

The governor of South Carolina, Hayne, led the nullifiers, and Calhoun took his seat in the Senate
Jackson was infuriated with Calhoun, who realizing there was no wide-spread support for nullification [as time progressed], was bailed out by Henry Clay. Clay devised the plan that would lower the tariff eventually back to its original value.

Maysville Veto
As president, Jackson saw a distinct separation of federal and state government.

When the Maysville Road Bill came into existence, the funding for the pike was to come partially from the Federal government. Jackson chose to veto this proposal, though, because the building of the road was a project within the state, and should therefore be funded by the state that it benefits.

While his intention was proper, the veto came under scrutiny because while the construction was an intrastate project it was to be part of a nationally benefiting road. Jackson’s vetoes, however, were for the most part accepted.

Movement of the Indians west of the Mississippi
Jackson possessed a certain hatred for the Indians, which came to be the national attitude; rather than the original belief that they were civilized savages, they were now considered uncivilized savages incapable of being tamed.

White settlers wanted removal of Indians for fear and, more importantly, their land.

Militias formed in the West and were very successful. In the South, many people wanted to allow the Indians that were civilized, like the Cherokee, to remain on their land. The eventual result was the passage of the Removal Act, which provided the necessary funds for the relocation of Indians to the West.

The Cherokee then found favor in their appeal to the Supreme Court (Marshall and Jackson were long time foes), however, Marshall didn’t enforce the ruling, and the Cherokee were eventually dissolved due to Jackson’s hatred. Some escaped to North Carolina, others took money to leave, and the remaining majority of all were forced from their homes [at bayonet point] to make a long “trek of tears” to their new homes, west of the Mississippi.

The Seminoles, however, were partially stubborn. Some left for relocation, while others joined escaped slaves to rise against the government. While unsuccessful, we never managed to totally relocate them.

Jackson dismantles the Federal bank
Seeing that the National Bank was a monopoly, Jackson set out to destroy it.

Jackson was successful enough in winning people to his side of the issue that he forced the bank’s president, Biddle, to take measure. Biddle responded by winning over some of Jackson’s followers along with certain influential people.

Biddle applied for renewal of the charter for the bank four years early, and it passed Congress but was of course vetoed and deemed by Jackson to be “unconstitutional.”
Congress was unable to override the veto, and so the issue became a political determinant in the following presidential election. Jackson was reelected, though, and continued to “destroy the monster” by taking out of it the federal funds. Needing the approval of the secretary of treasury, it took Jackson three men to find someone to cooperate.

Jackson then began to cutting funds from the bank and putting them in “pet banks.” It got to the point where the National Bank had poor credit to loan. Businesses hence suffered, and Biddle and Jackson blamed it on each other. Biddle, feeling the suffering would result in rechartering, was aided by foreign friends who appealed to Congress for recharter, however, as they failed and business failed, Biddle did as well and Jackson killed the
Hemingway was taught music, hunting, and fishing from his parents, but the
one thing that interested Hemingway the most was writing.

Ernest Miller Hemingway was born at eight oclock in the morning on July
21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois (Baker 3). Almost sixty-two years later, on
the morning of July 2, 1961 Hemingway selected one of his shotguns from his
closet, went upstairs, and shot himself in the head (Baker 564).

Born in the family home, Hemingway was the second of Dr. Clarence and
Grace Hall Hemingways six children; he had four sisters and one brother.
He was named after his maternal grandfather Ernest Hall and his great uncle
Miller Hall (Baker 2).

Ernest was married four times in his life. He and his first wife, Hadley
Richardson, were introduced while he was living at his friends house (Brian
9). The two quickly fell in love. While he could do no wrong with his
writing career, his personal life had began to show signs of decline. He
divorced his first wife Hadley in 1927 and married Pauline Pfeiffer (Brian
61). The civil war caused another kind of war for the Hemingways, a marital
war. Hemingway had met a young writer named Martha Gellhorn in Key West and
the two would go on to conduct a secret affair for almost four years before
Hemingway divorced Pauline and married Martha Gellhorn (Brian 63). Later,
Hemingway was seriously injured and was hospitalized. His wife Martha,
showed no signs of compassion. He then met Mary Welsh, who he said was
Marthas “antithesis.” Hemingway divorced Martha and married Mary (Brian
79).
Hemingway received his formal schooling in the Oak Park public school
system. In high school he was mediocre at sports, playing football,
swimming, water sports, basketball and serving as the track team manager. He
also enjoyed working on the high school newspaper (Baker 17-29).

Hemingway graduated in the spring of 1917, and instead of going to
college the following fall, like his parents had expected, he took a job as a
cub reporter. The job was arranged for him by his uncle Tyler who was a
close friend of the chief editorial writer of the paper. When he heard the
Red Cross was taking volunteers as ambulance drivers, he quickly signed up.
He was accepted in December of 1917, left his job at the paper in April of
1918 and sailed for Europe in May (Baker 38).

The war was an inspirational time in writing for Hemingway as well. He
wrote his popular novel, A Farewell To Arms. Another of Hemingways war
novels was For Whom The Bell Tolls. Examples of his work in short stories
are, “Hills Like White Elephants,” a symbolic story concerning abortion and
choice, and Take Nothing, which is a volume of his short stories.
Ernest Hemingways “Hills Like White Elephants” is thought to be one of
his most symbolic stories. His development of theme and symbolism makes the
story stick out from the other stories he has written in the past. These two
aspects of literature that he focuses on in this story make it very
interesting. Through the use of symbolism, Hemingway shows the process of
maturity, choice making, and abortion.

In “Hills Like White Elephants,” theme is an important element of
literature. Through this story, Hemingway examines women and the choices
that they have to make. He also discusses pregnancy, abortion, and maturity.
The two main characters in this story are Jig, the woman who is pregnant,
and the American man, who is never named. These two characters are
confronted with a choice, whether or not the woman should have an abortion.
“The theme of adulthood is shown because the characters in this story make
their own choices. They are mature enough to have a relationship, have a
baby, and think logically about the effects of having an abortion.”
(Mansilla) Along with the idea of maturity, comes the idea of pregnancy.
Jig seems to be a mature woman. She has taken on the responsibility of
pregnancy, and is now trying to make the mature choice of whether or not to
have the abortion. “The theme of pregnancy is a main theme. The story shows
what comes along with being pregnant; choices, responsibilities and
maturity.” (Mansilla) Choices are being made by the characters throughout the
story. The American man and Jig have to decide what to drink, and on whether
or not she want to actually “do it”, referring to
having the abortion or not. The man says that she does not have to if she
does not want to.

Symbolism is another important element in this story by Ernest Hemingway.
This story is one of Hemingways most symbolic stories. Every part of this
story has nothing to do with hills or white elephants. Mansilla states that
the title “Hills Like White Elephants” is symbolic. The hills symbolize the
stomach of a pregnant woman, and white elephants symbolize things that are
unwanted, such as the fetus. Another example of Hemingways use of symbolism
in this story is during the conversation between the two at the storys
beginning. “They look like white elephants” she said. The man replies, “I
have never seen one.” (Hemingway 342) When the man states that he had never
seen a white elephant before, it symbolizes that he had never before been a
father (Mansilla).

During the course of the story, the man and woman are faced with many
decisions about having the abortion or not. While they are talking , Jig
states, “It isnt ours anymore And once they have taken it away, you never
get it back.” (Hemingway 344). This remark shows that once the woman decides
to have the abortion, she can not go back. They can not re-create the baby
after it has been destroyed.

Hemingway has written many short stories that include literary concepts
such as symbolism, and theme, however, this one stands out from the rest,
Every line in this story has some significant meaning. Not only the lines
spoken by the characters in the story are symbolic, but the title as well.

Ernest Hemingway wrote many short stories about war, love, maturity, and
other aspects of life. He examined how both men and women feel about certain
subjects. Despite the fact that Hemingways education came to a halt after
his enrollment in the Red Cross, he wrote brilliant stories that combined the
use of theme, symbolism, and other literary aspects. These stories are very
thought-provoking and have not, and never will be forgotten. Hemingways
brilliant use of these literary elements is what has made Ernest Hemingway
the very well known, ever-so-popular author that he has always been. His
novels, short stories, and poems will live on to inspire future writers, as
they have done countless times in the past.