You have to handle sugar with care because can be dangerous. Also sugar can explode.
At 315 degrees sugar should be clear. Sugar boils at 215 degrees.
Corn syrup helps the sugar not to crystallize
For dark chocolate the melting point is 118 degrees to 128 degrees
For white chocolate the melting point is 100 degrees to 105 degrees, then you must take off the heat and whip.
Types of meringue
French: is plain egg whites and sugar. But this method is not for buttercream.
Italian: is made with egg whites, sugar and water. The difference is that the water and sugar are cooked to 240 degrees, and then added into the whipped egg whites.
Swiss: is made from egg whites and sugar. But the egg whites and egg are heated over a
Water bath to 110 to 120 degrees, and then put in the machine to whip. If fresh egg whites are used, heat meringue to 150 degrees.
Chocolate: Should be never refrigerated, for chocolate moose you should heat the chocolate to 150 degrees. Chocolate can be good up to one year, and should be stored at 50 to 70 degrees. In order to temper chocolate you must first cut the chocolate in thin slices. For European chocolate the heating temperature is 120 degrees maximum, but you should always read the package. All chocolate is made different.
Tempering is to melt all the crystals and ingredients in the chocolate to the right temperature. There are three methods.
Tabling method: chocolate holds up to 60 days. Melt chocolate to 118 degrees. (American Chocolate) Pour to marble slab and chill to 84 to 85 degrees. Then you handle the chocolate with a scraper and a pallet knife. Then you reheat the chocolate to 105 degrees. Then you pour it on the marble slab and repeat the handling until it reaches between 85 and 87 degrees.
Seeding method: Melt chocolate to the temperature of 118 degrees. You melt two pounds and you chop one pound on the side. After heating the two pounds on the stove to 118 degrees, you take off the stove and add the other pound and reheat until it is 85 to 87 degrees, and make sure all chocolate is melted and no lumps. Use this method for chocolate that will be used the same day. If you see white spots on a chocolate decoration, you can put the chocolate in the oven for two seconds, and they will disappear.
Machine method: Chop chocolate into small pieces, put in the machine. Set the thermostat to 118 degrees for seven or eight hours. Then reduce the temperature to 85 degrees for twelve hours. With this process you can keep the chocolate for sixty days. This is the best method. If making milk chocolate from scratch, you should melt separate. Then add them together and chill to 84 degrees. If you retemper it you must take the temperature to 118 degrees. Never mix brands of chocolate.
Dessert Sauces: With egg content should be thrown out within 12 to 24 hours. When making fresh sauces you must heat to 160 degrees. Add simple syrup to sauce instead of milk. When the sauce doesn’t contain eggs, it should be kept at room temperature.
1lb Apricot jam
8oz cold water
1oz lemon juice
oz liquor or extract
Dissolve cornstarch in the water.
Bring jam to the boil
Add cold water to jam
Wisk and boil together to clear consistency
Remove from the stove; add lemon juice, vanilla, liquor
Strain it, and sauce is ready
Orange ; Lemon
1pt of water
2 oranges or lemon (juice ; zest)
4oz of sugar
1oz of cornstarch
1oz orange extract or lemon extract
Remove 2-3oz of water to dissolve starch
Left over water with and orange juice ; zest
Bring to boil, and add starch
Bring to boil, to clear consistency
Remove from stove, strain and add extract
4lb fresh raspberry
6oz of water
1oz lemon juice
1 lemon zest
tsp of salt
oz of vanilla
2-3 drops of red coloring
Smash raspberries with sugar
Put on the stove, bring to boil
Add corn syrup with water, salt, and zest
Cook for 5 minutes, then add lemon juice, and continue to cook to the thread stage
Remove from stove, strain it, no raspberry seeds, add coloring, add vanilla