Conquest Of Mexico Essay Research Paper The
Conquest Of Mexico Essay, Research Paper
The Aztecs Account of the Conquest of Mexico
& # 8220 ; Is Hernan Cortez Guilty of go againsting International Laws? & # 8221 ;
The find of the New World was portion of the singular European enlargement. This enlargement was possible due to the European & # 8217 ; s proficient accomplishments in pilotage, their economic position in maritime and military endeavor, their involvement in distributing Christianity and their finding to derive new lands and wealth.
The Spaniards reached the New World in a conquering spirit. Spain & # 8217 ; s geographic expedition of the New World was driven by their involvement in enlargement of their imperium and spread of Catholicism. Many of the dedicated missionaries who embarked on the geographic expeditions were consistent in their intent to, as they put it, & # 8221 ; salvage the psyche of the pagan Indians & # 8221 ; . For the vanquishers like Hernan Cortez and Fransisco Pizarro their motive was no uncertainty more complex.
Hernan Cortez was born in Medillin, Spain in 1485. His Father fought against the Moors and his female parent was an honest spiritual adult female. After neglecting as a pupil Cortez came to the New World following in his male parent footfalls. He became involved in many expeditions and in 1518-1519 the governor of Cuba, Velazques motivated to get the wealths of the land, wanted to do full contact with mainland, Mexico, and Cortez was appointed the leader of the expedition. Cortez narrowly managed to set about the expedition and in 1519 he arrived in Mexico with merely 500 work forces, 16 Equus caballuss and several pieces of heavy weapon.
Cortez landed near Villa Rica de Vera Cruz and instantly derive political control of the metropolis. Soon the Spaniards started to trek inland and fought against the Tlaxcalan people who surrendered and became Cortez & # 8217 ; s most faithful Alliess. By October 1519 this combine force reached the Aztec small town of Choula where they slaughtered over 3000 citizens of Choula. At this point the swayer of Tenochtitlan, Motecuhzuma was really troubled but he believed that Cortez was really the Aztec God Quetzacoatl. By November of 1519 Cortez arrived at Tenochtitlan and Motecuhzuma greeted him heartily. Cortez, nevertheless motivated by greed and power seized Motecuhzuma as a surety trusting to derive wealth from a big ransom and to prevent an Aztec onslaught. Subsequently on around April of 1520 Cortez left Tenochtitlan because he heard that an collaring party had landed in Mexico and was looking for him. Pedro de Alvardo, who was left in charge, was really barbarous to the Aztecs and his actions caused a rebellion to get down. When Cortez returned he realized that he was greatly outnumbered and was confronting heavy onslaught. Cortez so asked Motecuhzuma calm the people down. That nevertheless failed and Motecuhzuma was killed and the Spaniards along with several thousand Tlaxcalans retreated. That dark became known as & # 8220 ; Noche Triste & # 8221 ; , sad dark, because the Spaniards chased by Aztec warriors, lost more than half their work forces. It took Cortez about a twelvemonth to construct up his forces and eventually in May of 1521 he made hi concluding assault on the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan. The Spanish onslaughts lasted boulder clay about August 13, 1521 and when it ended over 240,000 Aztecs were dead and the Aztec Empire destroyed.
In recent Mexican history, there have been attempts to laud Mexico & # 8217 ; s autochthonal heritage and at the same clip understating the accomplishments of the Spaniards. Today legion Parkss, streets, Bridgess, statues, schools, athletics squads bear the names Motecuhzuma and Cuauhtemoc. In contrast there exist the state of affairs where a adult male, named Cortez, that exerted a profound influence on what Mexico is today is virtually unknown in the state. Why is this? Due to the mode in which the Spaniards conquered Mexico they have frequently been accused of go againsting international Torahs. Is Hernan Cortez guilty of 1 ) race murder, 2 ) offenses against peace, 3 ) war offenses, and 3 ) Crimes against humanity?
Genocide harmonizing to the United Nations means actions committed with the purpose to destruct, in whole or in portion, national ethnical, racial or spiritual group. The violent death of the Aztecs was non Cortez & # 8217 ; s ultimate terminal but instead the agencies to obtain wealth. At first this blinded me but I rapidly realize that Cortez was guilty of genocid
vitamin E against the Cholultecas. Harmonizing to the Aztecs the Spanish were encouraged to destruct Cholula by their Alliess the Tlaxcaltecas. The Tlaxcaltecas told the Cortez that the Cholultecas were the Aztecs friends and were every bit courageous as the Aztecs. Cortez feeling intimidated marched against the Cholultecas, and inside a closed courtyard slaughtered them. Harmonizing to another history Cortez raised soldiers against the Cholultecas so as non to give them chance to organize an confederation with the Tlaxcaltecas. Taking advantage of the state of affairs they entered Cholula with the purpose to destruct the metropolis. And this they did as some 3000 Cholultecas were killed in a period of several yearss.
In the beginning of the conquest Cortes may non hold had the purpose to kill or pay war of aggression but he certainly was prepared in the event there was a demand. When the Motecuhzuma sent couriers loaded with gifts of gold to run into Cortez he was really thankless as he ordered them to be chained by their pess and cervix. Then he fired off his canon, which caused the couriers to lose their senses. This Cortez did to transfuse fright in the couriers who he knew would subsequently describe what they had seen. A clear illustration where the Spaniards are guilty of originating and engaging war was during the fete of Toxcatl. Cortez & # 8217 ; s deputy, Pedro de Alvarado, who was paranoiac of the Aztecs was seized with an impulse to kill the celebrators. Closing the transitions and Gatess to the topographic point where the festival was being held the Spanish ran among the terpsichoreans and killed them. This action was the chief cause of the rebellion that led to the & # 8220 ; Noche Triste & # 8221 ; where Aztec warriors killed about half of Cortez & # 8217 ; s work forces. Therefore it can be said that Cortez is guilty of Crimes against Peace.
The Aztecs were a warrior race but this is what led to their devastation. After the Spaniards were driven out of Tenochtitlan the Aztecs thought that the Spaniards would ne’er return. However when they returned they were even more ruthless with the purpose to assail Tenochtitlan and destruct it people. There were changeless conflicts between the Spaniards and the Aztecs and in much instance the Aztecs opposition was strong doing the Spaniards to withdraw. The Spaniards rapidly realized that the lone manner they could get the better of the Aztecs was by destructing the metropolis of Tenochtitlan. In a Battle in the Market topographic point Spanish Calvary work forces killed many Aztecs and before the Spanish withdrew they burnt the Aztec temple to the land. As accounted in the book & # 8216 ; Broken Spears & # 8221 ; , on the twenty-four hours that Tenochtitlan was taken, the Spaniards committed some of the most barbarous Acts of the Apostless of all time inflicted upon the unfortunate people of the land. The air was filled with calls of adult females and kids. By the terminal of the War when Tenochtitlan had surrendered the metropolis was in ruins. This is an obvious illustration of War Crimes as the Spaniards plundered public belongings, wanton the devastation of the metropolis and besides they wasted no clip in killing.
After the war ended one would believe the inhumane Acts of the Apostless would discontinue but offenses against humanity were still committed. When the war ended the metropolis was wholly destroyed and a great many Indians were dead. For the subsisters the flight from the metropolis began but for many it was non the terminal as the violent death still occurred. As the Aztecs left their place Spanish soldiers stationed along the roads hunt for gold. The bravest and strongest warriors were separated and branded with hot chainss either on their cheek or the lips. Cortez rounded up the Godheads that were alive. They were bounded and taken to Coyoacan and their pess were burned. These are clear illustration to demo that Cortez is guilty of Crimes against Humanity.
Cortez & # 8217 ; s chief motive was gilded and wealth. However, the extent of his actions was unacceptable. Cortez was peaceable greeted by the Aztecs. The freely gave him gold and gifts. This shows that the Aztecs did non mean to flight. However due to Cortez & # 8217 ; s greed for more and more gold he went to the utmost destructing the great metropolis of Tenochtitlan and killing more that 240,000 Aztecs.
Modern Latin American 4th edition
Thomas E. Skidmore
Peter H. Smith
Open Veins of Latin America