Cuban Missile Crisis

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The year is 1959 and the place is Cuba. It is January 1st and Batista, the president of Cuba has just fled the country fearing Fidel Castro, a Cuban revolutionary who mounted a rebel force called the 26th of July Movement against Batista. Castro assumes power on the 16th of February and establishes a dictatorship.


Communist Rule In Cuba
So far, the Soviet leader, Khrushchev is in question of what political track Castro is deciding to take. Russia themselves have only one connection with Fidel which is his brother Raul who is no doubt a full communist. The Communist Party of Cuba at this time has no contacts with Castro quite yet. Unfortunately, Raul never showed his true feelings for communism to his brother, Fidel. This causes quite a predicament for the Soviet Union to make them seen and heard by Cuba. Smartly, Russia sends Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan, who held business contacts in the US, to the states as a guest of the Russian ambassador. Fidel hears of Mikoyans arrival in the US and invites him to visit Cuba. Although Mikoyan is traveling throughout the island, looking things over, Castro still has not identified himself as a Communist quite yet. In May of 1960, diplomatic relations between Russia and Cuba are established following Mikoyans visit to the island. One reason why Cuba has turned to Russia is because the US had cut off their oil supplies and imposed an economic embargo on the island because of the naturalization of US owned companies and citizens by the Cuban government. This calls for a massive oil shipment from the Soviets but unfortunately, Russia was unable to handle such a demand because of their limited overseas shipping capabilities. Subsequently, Russia puts an order for extra oil tankers from Italy, a capitalist country. When Italy agrees to the business proposition, the US is infuriated that another capitalist country was willing to help a communist country. Italy saw it as nothing more than an opportunity to make extra money, regardless of opposing economic systems.
Back in Cuba, Castro has begun to make enemies for himself. The many policies he has instilled angered many who fought beside him in the revolution to overthrow Batista and many didnt approve of the socialist reforms he made such as the naturalization of businesses and his collectivization of agriculture. Castro felt he needed protection against the United States and because Cuban forces mainly used small arms and guerilla warfare, Russia sent in tanks, artillery and attack planes as well as instructors on how to use the new technologies. The former Russian ambassador in Cuba was then replaced after Khrushchev soon realized that he worsened relations with Cuba instead of bettering them. A journalist replaced him by the name of Alekseyev who was friendly with Fidel and his brother, Raul. Alekseyev was seen to be much better suited for his position and worked well with the Cuban government because he was already known and trusted by them. By the early 1960s, Castro has openly endorsed Communism with his many appointments of communist leaders in key positions of the Cuban government. As time, went on, Cuba became increasingly dependent on military and economic aid provided by the Soviet Union. Russia made up much of the Cuban trade interactions including the purchase of sugar and nickel. The American government became aware of Cubas growing success and began to wonder if Cuba would act as an example of successful Socialism, persuade other countries in the Western Hemisphere to revert to a socialist form of government or even serve as a base for anti-American propaganda. The United States was more threatened than ever by this socialist island nation on the rise.


The Cuban Missile Crisis
The date is October 14th, 1962. U.S. spy planes are making a pass over Cuba, particularly, an area where much activity is spotted. A Soviet-managed construction site is visible and photographs are taken of the site. It is soon confirmed that the first of many medium/intermediate range ballistic missiles have been spotted. Frantically, President Kennedy secretly meets with his advisory staff to question the approach. On October 22, Kennedy announces a naval blockade aimed at preventing offensive missile weaponry into Cuba on Russian