Evaluation of Some Energy Drinks Essay
Abstract Energy drinks are drinks which contain chemical components that are said to better physical and mental public presentation. Most of them chiefly contain changing sums of caffeine. guarana. ginseng and taurine. This survey aims to supply a critical reappraisal sing the inauspicious effects of inordinate day-to-day consumption of energy drinks. Five commercially available energy drinks were used as the topic of the survey. The mean ingestion of a certain constituent was compared to the functioning size included in each merchandise.
It was found out that the ingestion of the ingredients more than the recommended sums per twenty-four hours may do physiological side effects. There is no medical usage for energy drinks. nevertheless several ingredients in some of these drinks have been found to be helpful in the medical position. Keyword ( s ) : energy drinks 1. Introduction In the past decennaries. the drink industry paved the manner to the rise of caffeinated energy drinks in the market. Back in early 1960s. it foremost appeared in Europe and Asia in response to the consumers’ demand for a dietetic addendum that would ensue in increased energy ( Reissig et al. . 2009 ) .
Basically. energy drinks refer to drinks that contain chiefly caffeine. alongside other active components which includes changing sums of guarana infusion. taurine. vitamins. amino acids and herbal infusions. These supposedly provide benefits such as increased mental watchfulness. physical endurance. public presentation and staying power ( Simon and Mosher. 2007 ; Babu et Al. . 2008 ) . Conversely. there is unequal grounds that ingestion of energy drinks can significantly better both physical and mental public presentation ( Scholey and Kennedy. 2004 ) .
The broad handiness and distribution of energy drinks makes them readily accessible for purchase by striplings. Market studies indicate that 31 % of those aged 12 to 17 are regular consumers of energy drinks. as are 34 % of elderly 18 to 24 ( Simon and Mosher. 2007 ) . Concerns have been raised sing the effects of the ingredients present in energy drinks on kids and striplings. This survey was conducted due to the nucleus aim of doing the public aware of the inauspicious effects of energy drinks. particularly to kids. Adverse reactions and toxicity from high-energy drinks chiefly root from their caffeine content ( Reissig et al. . 2009 ) .
The fatal dosage of pure caffeine in grownups is 5 to 10 gms when taken orally and 3. 5 gms by injection. In kids. the fatal dosage is much lower ( Health Canada. 2000 ) . Children who consume excessively much caffeine are at higher hazard for behavioural effects. such as anxiousness. temper alterations and loss of heed. A day-to-day consumption of less than 45 to 85 milligram is recommended. depending on the child’s wellness status ( Health Canada. 2003 ) . Based on a study. it was found out that 42. 3 % of the young person ( ages 11 to 18 ) consumes energy drinks ( O’Dea. 2003 ) . At hazard kids holding inordinate day-to-day consumption of caffeine should be limited to no more than 2.
5 mg caffeine/kg organic structure weight. and may necessitate to avoid devouring energy drinks with higher caffeine content. Adolescents should restrict caffeine ingestion every bit good as consumptions greater than 100 mg/day for studies says that it has been straight correlated with an addition in blood force per unit area ( Savoca et al. . 2004 ) . 2. Materials and Methods 2. 1 Research Design The research is focused on the constituents of energy drinks where five merchandises were sampled viz. Product A. B. C. D. and E. The research workers acquired a sample of each merchandise. 2. 2 Sampling and Acquisition of Samples Products A. B. C. D. and E were indiscriminately sampled.
Fish bowl sampling was used where the names of these merchandises were written on a piece of paper. Out of 7. 5 merchandises of energy drink were picked from a bowl. Slovin’s expression was used and the border of mistake was set to 20 % . One out of seven is the chance of each to be chosen. The 5 energy drink merchandises were acquired through purchase. 2. 3 Gathering of Information Each of the merchandises underwent examining of the research workers. The composing information has been referred to for the finding of ingredients of each merchandise. The information was listed and tabulated ( Refer to Postpone 3. 1 ) .
This was done to compare their constituents and to find which merchandises portion the same constituents. Nutrition information was besides included. 2. 4Analysis of the Components The ingredients of merchandises were analyzed through research. The research workers studied the primary and side effects of some of the ingredients. The mean ingestion of an mean homo of a certain constituent was compared to the functioning size included in each merchandise.
3. Consequences and Discussion PRODUCT A NUTRITION INFORMATION| SERVINGS PER PACK: 1 Helping Size: 250mL| Measure: | PER SERVING| PER 100mL| Energy| 140 cal| 14cal| Carbohydrates. Total| 34g| 14g| .
Sugar| 33g| 13g| Sodium | 60mg| 24mg| Taurine| 1000mg| 400mg| Caffeine| 80mg| 32mg| Inositol| 25mg| 10mg| Ginseng Root Extract| 25mg| 10mg| Guarana Seed Extract| 25mg| 10mg| Niacin| 9mg| 3. 6mg| Pantothenic Acid| 3mg| 1. 2mg| Vitamin B6| 1mg| 0. 4mg| Vitamin B12| 2mcg| 0. 8mcg| Ingredients: Carbonated Water. Sucrose. Glucose. Citric Acid. Glucuronolactone. Taurine. Sodium Citrate. Sodium Chloride. Natural & A ; Artificial Spirits. Caffeine. Caramel Color. Inositol. Guarana Seed Extract. Panax Ginseng ( Root Extract ) . Niacin. Pantothenic Acid. Riboflavin. Pyridoxine Hydrochloride. Cyanocobalamin. Eu Energy Blend. Figure 1.
Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product A. PRODUCT B NUTRITION INFORMATION| SERVINGS PER PACK: 1 Helping Size: 180mL| | PER 180mL ( 1 functioning ) | % RENI* or % U. S. -DRI**| Calories| 50Kcal| 2 % | Total Fat| 0g| -| Sodium| 0g| -| Total Carbohydrate| 12. 5g| 10 % *| Sugar| 12. 5g| -| Vitamin B1| 1. 2mg| 100 % | Vitamin B2| 1. 7mg| 131 % | Niacinamide| 20mg| 125 % | Vitamin B6| 1. 9mg| 146 % | Inositol| 50mg| -| Ginseng| 25mg| -| Royal Jelly| 100mg| -| Iron| 5mg| 42 % | Taurine| 1000mg| -| Caffeine ( anhydrous ) | 50mg| -| *Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes fro Filipinos **U. S. – Dietary Reference Intake ( used if no RENI ) .
Ingredients: Sucrose. Taurine. Citric Acid. Nature-identical Flavors. Royal Jelly. Sodium Benzoate. Inositol. Caffeine. Ferric Pyrophosphate. Sucralose. Ginseng Extract ( Panax ) . Mulitivitamins. Pure Water Figure 2. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product B. PRODUCT C NUTRITION INFORMATION| SERVINGS PER PACK: 1 Helping Size: 330mL| | PER SERVING| % RENI*| Energy| 211Kcal| -| Carbohydrate| 54g| -| Vitamin B3| 10mg| 62 % | Vitamin B6| 1. 3mg| 102 % | VitaminB12| 1. 3mcg| 55 % | Ginseng Extract| 9. 9mg| -| Inositol| 23mg| -| Taurine| 145mg| -| * % RENI are based on a 2. 000 Calorie diet.
Ingredients: Carbonated Water. Sugar. Citric Acid. Artificial Flavor. Maltodextrin. Sodium Citrate. Sodium Hexametaphosphate. Taurine. Potassium Sorbate. Caffeine. Sodium Benzoate. Allura Red ( Colorant ) . Inositol. Calcium Disodium EDTA. Modified Food Starch. Panax Ginseng Extract. Niacinamide. Ascorbic Acid. Cyanocobalamin. ( 0. 1 % ) Pyridoxine Hydrochloride. Figure 3. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product C. PRODUCT D NUTRITION INFORMATION| SERVING SIZE: 1 Helping Size: 150mL| | PER SERVING| % Daily Values*| Calories| 110| -| Total Fat| 0g| 0 % | Sodium| 240mg| 10 % | Total Carbohydrate| 26g| 9 % | – Sugars| 26g| -| .
Protein| less than 1g| -| *Percent Daily Valuess are based on a 2. 000 Calorie diet. Ingredients: Taurine – 1. 000 mg. Caffeine – 75 mg. Inositol – 50 mg. Lysine – 50 mg. Choline Bitartrate – 50 mg. Nicotinamide – 20 mg. Pyridoxine HCl ( Vitamin B6 ) – 1. 3 mg. Cyanocobalamin ( Vitamin B12 ) – 2. 4 microgram. Tartrazine C. I. 19140 ( Yellow 5 ) . Citric Acid. Sodium Benzoate. Sugar and Artificially Flavoured. Figure 4. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product D. PRODUCT E NUTRITION INFORMATION| SERVING Size: ? 1. 5 SERVING Size: 8 Florida. oz. ( 240mL ) | | PER SERVING| % Daily Values*| Calories| 195| -| Total Fat| 3g| 1. 2 % |
Sodium| 49mg| 2 % | Total Carbohydrates| 39g| 15 % | Protein| 3g| 1. 2 % | Thiamine Hydrochloride ( Vit. B1 ) | 1. 35mg| 90 % | Pyridoxine Hydrochloride ( Vit. B6 ) | 1. 35mg| 68 % | Niacinamide| 7mg| 37 % | Vitamin B12| 0. 70mcg| 12 % | Taurine| 105mg| -| Inositol| 16mg| -| * % Daily Values are based on a 2. 000 Calorie diet. Ingredients: Water. Sugar. Citric Acid. Flavoring. Sodium Citrate. Taurine. Caffeine. Sodium Benzoate. Tartrazine. Inositol. Ginseng Powder. Niacinamide ( Vit. B3 ) . Sunset Yellow. Thiamine HCl ( Vit. B1 ) . Pyridoxine HCl ( Vit. B6 ) . Cyanocobalamin ( Vit. B12 ) . Figure 5. Nutrition Information and Ingredients of Product E.
| PRODUCT| INGREDIENTS| A| B| C| D| E| Water/Carbonated Water| +| +| +| | +| Sucrose| +| +| +| +| +| Glucose| +| | | | | Citric Acid| +| +| +| +| +| Glucuronolactone| +| | | | | Taurine| +| +| +| +| +| Sodium Citrate| +| | +| | +| Sodium Chloride| +| | | | | Natural Flavors| +| +| | | | Artificial Flavors| +| | +| +| | Caffeine| +| +| +| +| +| Inositol| +| +| +| +| +| Guarana Seed Extract| +| | | | | Panax Ginseng| +| +| +| | +| Niacin ( Vit. B3 ) | +| | +| +| +| Panthotenic Acid ( Vit. B5 ) | +| | | | | Riboflavin ( Vit. B2 ) | +| | | | | Pyroxidine HCL ( Vit. B6 ) | +| | +| +| +| Cynocobalamin ( Vit. B12 ) | +| | +| +| +| .
Eu Energy Blend| +| | | | | Maltodextrin| | | +| | | Sodium Hexametaphosphate| | | +| | | Potassium Sorbate| | | +| | | Sodium Benzoate| | +| +| | +| Calcium Disodium EDTA| | | +| | | Modified Food Starch| | | +| | | Ascorbic Acid ( Vit. C ) | | | +| | | Lysine| | | | +| | Choline Bitartrate| | | | +| | Tartrazine| | | | +| +| Food Coloring| | Allura Red| | | +| | | Caramel Color| +| | | | | Sunset Yellow| | | | | +| Thiamine HCl ( Vit. B1 ) | | | | | +| Ginseng powder| | | | | +| Ferric Pyrophosphate| | +| | | | Sucralose| | +| | | | Multivitamins| | +| | | | Table 3. 1. Common ingredients present among the energy drinks.
Table 3. 1 shows the ingredients of merchandises A. B. C. D. and E. Any formulated energy drink may incorporate the ingredients listed above. All 5 contain saccharides. peculiarly sucrose. and citric acid. Product C has the highest mean measure of saccharides which includes sugar. per functioning with 54 g. It is followed by Product E with 39 g. . Product A with 34 g. . Product D with 26 g. . and Product B with 12. 5 g. . severally. Product A. C. D. and E has Niacin. Pyroxidine Hydrochloride and Cyanocobalamin. Riboflavin is present in Product A while merchandise E has Thiamine Hydrochloride.
Vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin. which is present in Product A. C. D. and E has measures 2 microgram. 1. 3 microgram. 2. 4 microgram. 0. 70 microgram per functioning severally. In Vitamin B12 Dosing Guidelines for General Supplementation. the Recommended Dietary Allowances ( RDAs ) for vitamin B12 for 14 old ages old and above is 2. 4 mcg daily. An consumption of one helping of Product D could provide the day-to-day demand of the organic structure of an mean adolescent and grownup while merchandise per helping is 0. 83 % of our body’s needs for B12 everyday ( hypertext transfer protocol: //women. emedtv. com ) . The RDAs indicate the equal consumption of a organic structure for a food.
Panax Ginseng is found to be present in Products A. B. C. and E. This ingredient is claimed to play a function on mental. physical and sexual public presentation. It is said that it could take down blood force per unit area and control blood glucose but there is no current scientific grounds yet on its efficaciousness ( Ernst. 2002 ) . Up to 3. 000 mg twenty-four hours of auxiliary taurine is safe as considered ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. mayoclinic. com ) . Taurine is an amino acid that may take down blood force per unit area where systolic. diastolic and average blood force per unit area in topics with high blood pressure have been reduced by 6 gms of auxiliary taurine every twenty-four hours ( Kohashi et Al. . 1988 ) .
Taurine is present in Product A. B. C. D. and E. It is claimed to command high blood pressure yet there is deficient grounds that it can significantly take down the hazards of diabetes and epilepsy harmonizing to what it is claimed to be. The caffeine nowadays in java and pharmaceutical drugs is said to be unhealthy. The caffeine of course contained in a few herbs such as Yerba Mate. Guarana. Kola Nut. and Green Tea. is of course happening caffeine. besides known as “bio-caffeine” and is non-addictive. Furthermore. herbal teas are stimulations in nature due to other chemicals beside caffeine.
These other stimulations found of course happening in herbs. i. e. “mateine” ( found in Yerba Mate ) . have similar reaction on the organic structure like caffeine does. but they are non habit-forming at all ( hypertext transfer protocol: //dherbs. com/ ) . All merchandises were found out to incorporate caffeine. But among the other merchandises. merely Product A has guarana infusion ( 1 gm of guarana is about 40 milligrams of caffeine ) . Canadian Guidelines recommend an consumption of no more than 85 mg/day for people with ages runing from 12 old ages old and above. In a research conducted by Warzak et Al. ( 2010 ) . the hours of slumber is negatively correlated with the sum of caffeine consumption.
Consumption of caffeine may besides impact cognitive diminution due to its association with a broad scope of clinical variables ( Ritchie. 2007 ) . Caffeine may do a relentless consequence on the neurochemical system ( Sobotka. 1989 ) . Caffeine on kids with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ( ADHD ) was more effectual than no intervention in worsening impulsivity. aggression. and parents’ and teachers’ perceptual experiences of children’s symptom badness. compared with Methylphenidate and Amphetamines ( hypertext transfer protocol: //jad. sagepub. com/ ) . Caffeine is a powerful stimulation. therefore it may cut down daylight fatigue and better mental focal point.
However. researches are still a must sing caffeine’s effects on the operation of striplings and grownups with ADHD. 4. Decision After analyzing the ingredients of the energy drinks. the ingestion of the ingredients more than the recommended sums per twenty-four hours may do physiological side effects. Caffeinated drinks. to be considered safe. must be limited of no more than the equal consumption of an mean adult male. if a helping is formulated to be consumed one time day-to-day. Limited consumption of these energy drinks most probably does non do inauspicious effects.
Energy drinks are composed chiefly of saccharides and different ingredients like taurine. caffeine. and Panax Ginseng which are safe provided that it would be consumed in proper sums. Caffeine. which is common to many energy drinks. was found out to worsen some behavior damages associated with ADHD such as aggression and impulsivity. Mentions Reissig CJ. Strain EC. Griffiths RR. ( 2009 ) . “Caffeinated energy drinks a turning job. Drug Alcohol Depend” . 99:1–10. Simon. M. & A ; Mosher. J. Alcohol ( 2007 ) . “Energy Drinks and Youth: A Dangerous Mix. Marin Institute: Alcohol Industry Watchdog” .
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APPENDIX A Corresponding Labels of Different Energy Drinks Product| Energy Drink Product Name| A| Rockstar™| B| I-ON™| C| Sting™| D| Red Bull™| E| Cobra™| APPENDIX B Determining the Sample Size n=N1+Ne2 Where: n = sample size N = Population size vitamin E = border of mistake n=71+7 ( 0. 20 ) 2 n=5. 46.