Fahrenheit 451 & Brave New Wor

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Fahrenheit 451 & Brave New Wor

Fahrenheit 451 & Brave New World
For more than half a century science fiction writers have thrilled
and challenged readers with visions of the future and future worlds.
These authors offered an insight into what they expected man, society,
and life to be like at some future time.


One such author, Ray Bradbury, utilized this concept in his work,
Fahrenheit 451, a futuristic look at a man and his role in society.
Bradbury utilizes the luxuries of life in America today, in addition
to various occupations and technological advances, to show what life
could be like if the future takes a drastic turn for the worse. He
turns man’s best friend, the dog, against man, changes the role of
public servants and changes the value of a person.


Aldous Huxley also uses the concept of society out of control in
his science fiction novel Brave New World. Written late in his career,
Brave New World also deals with man in a changed society. Huxley asks
his readers to look at the role of science and literature in the
future world, scared that it may be rendered useless and discarded.
Unlike Bradbury, Huxley includes in his book a group of people
unaffected by the changes in society, a group that still has religious
beliefs and marriage, things no longer part of the changed society, to
compare and contrast today’s culture with his proposed futuristic
culture.


But one theme that both Brave New World and Fahrenheit 451 use in
common is the theme of individual discovery by refusing to accept a
passive approach to life, and refusing to conform. In addition, the
refusal of various methods of escape from reality is shown to be a
path to discovery. In Brave New World, the main characters of Bernard
Marx and the “Savage” boy John both come to realize the faults with
their own cultures. In Fahrenheit 451 Guy Montag begins to discover
that things could be better in his society but, sue to some
uncontrollable events, his discover happens much faster than it would
have. He is forced out on his own, away from society, to live with
others like himself who think differently that the society does.


Marx, from the civilized culture, seriously questions the lack of
history that his society has. He also wonders as to the lack of books,
banned because they were old and did not encourage the new culture. By
visiting a reservation, home of an “uncivilized” culture of savages,
he is able to see first hand something of what life and society use to
be like. Afterwards he returns and attempts to incorporate some of
what he saw into his work as an advertising agent. As a result with
this contrast with the other culture, Marx discovers more about
himself as well. He is able to see more clearly the things that had
always set him on edge: the promiscuity, the domination of the
government and the lifelessness in which he lived. (Allen)
John, often referred to as “the Savage” because he was able to
leave the reservation with Marx to go to London to live with him, also
has a hard time adjusting to the drastic changes. The son of two
members of the modern society but born and raised on the reservation,
John learned from his mother the values and the customs of the
“civilized” world while living in a culture that had much different
values and practices. Though his mother talked of the promiscuity that
she had practiced before she was left on the reservation (she was
accidentally left there while on vacation, much as Marx was) and did
still practice it, John was raised, thanks to the people around him,
with the belief that these actions were wrong. Seeing his mother act
in a manner that obviously reflected different values greatly affected
and hurt John, especially when he returned with Marx to London. John
loved his mother, but he, a hybrid of the two cultures, was stuck in
the middle. (May)
These concepts, human reaction to changes in their culture and
questioning of these changes, are evident throughout the book.
Huxley’s characters either conform to society’s demands for uniformity
or rebel and begin a process of discovery; there are no people in the
middle. By doing so, Huxley makes his own views of man and society
evident. He shows that those who conform to the “brave new world”
become less human, but those who actively question the new values of
society discover truth about the society, about themselves, and about
people in general. An example of this is Huxley’s views of drugs as an
escape. The conforming members of society used widely a drug called
soma, which induces hallucinations and escapes from the conscious
world for two to eight hour periods. Those very few who didn’t, John
included, mainly did not because they thought the drug either unclean
or an easy escape, one not needed in a society aiming at making life
very simple. By refusing to “go along” in this escape from reality,
John is ultimately able to break from society and define his own
destiny.


In Fahrenheit 451 Guy Montag, the main character, is able to see
through the government and the official policies of his society. He
does so by gradually beginning to question certain aspect of society
which most simply accept as fact. Montag’s job as a fireman serves as
a setting to show how many people passively accept the absurdity of
their society. Instead of rushing to put out fires, as firemen today
do, Montag rushes to start fires, burning the books and homes of
people reported to have books. This was considered by most people to
be a respectable profession. But on different occasions Montag took a
book out of burning homes and would from time to time read them. From
this, he begins to to question the values of his society.


Montag’s marriage also serves a setting to contrast passive
acceptance versus questioning of society’s values. His marriage is
not the happy kind that couples today experience but more like a
coexistence. He and his wife live together and he supports her, though
he apparently neither loves her a great deal or expects her to love
him.


This relationship and living arrangement, with its lack of love,
is Bradbury’s way of showing what life could be like if people not
only stop communicating but stop thinking and choosing, thus loosing
control over their lives. Montag and his wife continue to live
together though people in that situation today would not hesitate to
terminate such a relationship. Montag’s wife apparently accepts this
relationship because it is normal for the society in which she lives.
(Wolfheim)
Like Brave New World_characters escaping from reality through the
use of soma, Montag’s wife, and many other characters, escape through
watching a sophisticated form of television. This television system
covers three of the walls of the Montag’s TV room (they can’t afford
to buy the screen to cover the fourth wall), has a control unit that
allows the watchers to interact with the characters on the program and
another unit that inserts Mrs. Montag’s name into specific places,
thus creating the image they the characters are actually conversing
with them. Montag’s wife, having only a few friends and ones she
rarely sees, spends much of her day in this room, watching a program
called “The Family”, a government sponsored program that shows
the viewers what life at home should be like.


The problem with this is that Montag’s wife takes the program as a
substitute for reality. She is almost addicted to the program, much as
people were with soma in Brave New World. Bradbury uses this
television and it’s programs as a way of showing the escape he is
worried people will look for in the future. Without actively
questioning society’s values, he is concerned that people will look
for ways to idly spend their time.


But like Marx, Montag chooses not to take part in this addiction.
By abstaining, he can see the affects it’s use has on the people
around him, much as Marx and more importantly John the Savage saw in
their culture. Both authors try to show that with life made easier by
strong government control and a lack of personal involvement people
will no longer spend their time thinking, questioning or developing
their own ideas.


Through these various diversions from normal behavior in society,
Marx, John the Savage and Guy Montag are able to see the truths behind
the societies they live in and are able to learn about themselves. And
though their discoveries meant that their lives would be changed
forever, the authors succeeded in showing that the key to humanity
lies in thinking and questioning. These men found themselves through
their own discoveries, much as Bradbury and Huxley hope others will
do.



Works Cited
Allen, Walter The Modern Novel. Dutton, 1964
May, Keith M. Aldous Huxley. Paul Elek Books Ltd., 1972
Wolfheim, Donald The Universe Makers. Harper and Row, 1971