Hopi indians- houses belong to women, exclusion of boys from adult male activities is greater than the exclusion of girls from adult female activities. suggests girls are more fully absorbed into the female assemblies than boys into male cohorts-sexually egalitarian society, gendered balanced society
Nuer clan- the largest group of agnates who trace thier descent from a common ancestor and between whom marriage is forbidden and sexual relations considered incestuous.
A cln is a system of lineages and a lineage is a geneological segment of a clan.
Nuerlan consists of 20 such clans.
lineage is a group of living agnates, descended from the founder of that particular line.
Lineage system= Clan-maximal lineages-major lineages-minor lineages-minimal lineages
rules of exogamy
Nuer say feuds and quarrels between lineages chiefly led to the their dispersal, two factors other than migration, quarrels intermarriage, since they are a pastoral people they are not bound by economic necessity or ritual ties to any one spot.
Nuer-free to wander as they pleased, a man can leave his family, herd, garden, neighbors if he feels like it and take up with other kinsmen usually his sister. Clans and lineages can never be disolved into one.
South africa- patriarchal-once matriarchal
duolateral cultures-those that trace descent through both the male and female line.-minority, constitute a significant proportion of those cultures showing some matrilineality. matrilineal descent is what is predicted to occur if females are in control of inherited resources. does not mean females have won the battle simly means males do not want to control specific resources.
Bilateral kinship- english quakers- secretarian endogamy coupled with elaborately preserved genealogy books. In principle all quakers were deemed of equal social status and everbody was related to everbody else. bilateral structures- practical economic significance of descent through females is usually at least as significant as descent through males. -surnames, quakers thought of themselves as patrilineal corporations associated with a particular piece of physical property. Intersting point=founder of family is a woman, begining of the line, descendents changed names regularly to the higher social status names if they had the opportunities
Iban of Borneo(indonesia)long houses, ever family related cognatically within long house, non corporate group, no holdings, property, ownership, absence of economic activity-onlyh corporate under jural matters-every one is under jurisdiction under head of house-bilek family independent from other families-own food, necessities
virilocal-residence w/ males fam
uxorilocal- res w/ wife fam
utrolateral- system of filiation in which an individual can posess membership of either his mother’s or fathers birth group. not both
equal paternal filiation chosen among ibans.
striclty exogamous unit
descent=the manner in which persons affiliate with their kin group.
descent=a way in which statuses are ascribed and /or withheld on the basis of kin relationships.
Nonunilinear descent-a group in which members trace their realtionship lineally through either or both sexes to a common known or unknown ancestor.children are assigned alternatively to fathers then mothers groups
Kwakiutl- names acquired from father or close agnate
bilateral descent=where collective and corporate control is absent or minimal.