French Revolution Essay Research Paper French Revolution
Gallic Revolution Essay, Research Paper
“ Revolutions evolve in definite stages. At first they are moderate in range, so they become extremist to extra and eventually they are brought to abrupt decisions by the outgrowth of a strong adult male to reconstruct order. ” Discuss this statement with specific mentions to the Gallic Revolution.
The Gallic Revolution brought approximately great alterations in the society and authorities of France. The revolution, which lasted from 1789 to 1799, besides had far-reaching effects on the remainder of Europe. “ It introduced democratic ideals to France but did non do the state a democracy. However, it ended supreme regulation by Gallic male monarchs and strengthened the in-between category. ” ( Durant, 12 ) After the revolution began, no European male monarchs, Lords, or other members of the nobility could take their powers for granted or disregard the ideals of autonomy and equality.
The revolution began with a authorities fiscal crisis but rapidly became a motion of reform and violent alteration. In one of the early events, a crowd in Paris captured the Bastille, a royal fortress and hated symbol of subjugation. A series of elective legislative assemblies so took control of the authorities. King Louis XVI and his married woman, Marie Antoinette, were executed. Thousands of others met the same destiny in a period known as the Reign of Terror. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte, a Gallic general, took over the authorities.
At the beginning of the revolution, events seemed minor and proceeded in a logical manner. One of the grounds the revolution originated was the discontent among the lower and in-between categories in France. By jurisprudence, society was divided in to three groups called estates. The first estate was made of up clergy, Lords comprised the 2nd and the remainder of the citizens, the 3rd estate.
The 3rd estate resented certain advantages of the first two estates. The clergy and Lords did non hold to pay most revenue enhancements. The 3rd estate, particularly the provincials, had to supply about all the state & # 8217 ; s revenue enhancement gross. Many members of the in-between category were besides worried by their societal position. They were among the most of import people in Gallic society but were non recognized as such because they belonged to the 3rd estate.
“ Fiscal crisis developed because the state had gone profoundly into debt to finance the Seven Years War ( 1756-1763 ) and the Revolutionary War ( 1775-1783 ) . ” ( Durant, 22 ) The Parliament of Paris insisted that King Louis XVI could borrow more money or raise revenue enhancements merely by naming a meeting of the States-General. The States-General was made up of representatives of the three estates, and had last met in 1614. Unwillingly, the male monarch called the meeting.
The States-General opened on May 5, 1789, at Versailles. The first two estates wanted each estate to take up affairs and ballot on them individually by estate. The 3rd estate had has many representatives as the other two combined. It insisted that all the estates be merged into one national assembly and that each representative had one ballot. The 3rd estate besides wanted the States-General to compose a fundamental law.
The male monarch and the first two estates refused the demands of the 3rd estate. In June 1789, the representatives of the 3rd estate declared themselves the National Assembly of France. Louis the XVI them allowed the three estates to fall in together as the National Assembly. But he began to garner military personnels around Paris to interrupt up T
Meanwhile, the multitudes of France besides took action. On July 14, 1789, a immense crowd of Parisians rushed to the Bastille. They believed they would happen weaponries and ammo at that place for usage in supporting themselves against the male monarch & # 8217 ; s ground forces. The people captured the Bastille and began to rupture it down. Massive provincial rebellions were besides happening in the countryside.
The male monarch & # 8217 ; s remotion led to a new phase in the revolution. The first phase had been a broad middle-class reform motion based on a constitutional monarchy. The 2nd phase was organized around rules of democracy. The National Convention opened on September 21, 1792, and declared France a democracy.
“ Louis XVI was placed on test for bewraying the state. The National Convention found him guilty of lese majesty, and a slender bulk voted for the death-penalty. The male monarch was beheaded on the closure by compartment on January 21, 1793. The revolution bit by bit grew more radical-that is more unfastened to extreme and violent alteration. Extremist leaders came into prominence. In the Convention, they were known as the mountain because they sat on the high benches at the rear of the hall during meetings. Leaderships of the Mountain were Maximilien Robespierre, Georges Jacques Danton, and Jean Paul Marat. The Mountain dominated a powerful political nine called the Jacobin Club.
“ Turning differences between the Mountain and the Gironde led to a battle for power, and the Mountain won. In June 1793, the Convention arrested the prima Girondins. In bend, the Girondists & # 8217 ; protagonists rebelled against the Convention. One of these protagonists assassinated Marat in July 1793. ” ( Woloch, 526 )
This was the most hideous period of the revolution. The Convention & # 8217 ; s leaders included Robespierre, Lazare Carnot, and Bertrand Barere. The Convention declared a policy of panic against Rebels, protagonists of the male monarch, and anyone else who publically disagreed with official policy. “ In clip, 100s of 1000s of suspects filled the state & # 8217 ; s gaols. Courts handed down approximately 18,000 decease sentences in what was called the Reign of Terror. Paris became accustomed to the rattling of two-wheeled carts called tumbrils as they carried people to the closure by compartment. ” ( Woloch, 526 )
In clip, the groups began to fight for power among themselves. Robespierre succeeded in holding Danton and other former leaders executed. Many people in France wanted to stop the Reign of Terror, the Jacobin absolutism, and the democratic revolution. Robespierre & # 8217 ; s enemies in the Convention eventually attacked him as a autocrat on July 29, 1794. He was executed the following twenty-four hours. The Reign of Terror ended with Robespierre & # 8217 ; s decease.
“ The Convention, which had adopted a democratic fundamental law in 1793, replaced that papers with a new one in 1795. The authorities formed under this new fundamental law was called the Directory. France was still a republic, but one time once more merely citizens who paid a certain sum of revenue enhancements could vote. ” ( Woloch, 527 )
The Directory began run intoing in October 1795. In October 1799, a figure of political leaders plotted to subvert the Directory. They needed military support and turned to Napoleon Bonaparte, a Gallic general who had become a hero during a military run in Italy in 1796 and 1797. Bonaparte seized control of the authorities on November 9, 1799, stoping the revolution. Napoleon would reconstruct order to the Gallic people with such great accomplishments as his Code Napoleon.