Freud Essay Research Paper Sigmund Freud was

Freud Essay, Research Paper

Sigmund Freud was the first of six kids to be born into his in-between category,

Judaic household. His male parent was a wool merchandiser, and was the supplier for the

household. From the clip Freud was a kid, he pondered theories in math, scientific discipline,

and doctrine, but in his teens, he took a deep involvement in what he subsequently

called depth psychology. He wanted to detect how a individual? s head plants, so he

began to research the witting and unconscious parts of one? s mind.

Freud? s parents and siblings were straight involved in leting him to prosecute

this undiscovered country of psychological science. He was given his ain room so that he could

analyze his books in silence, and was merely disturbed when it was clip to eat.

Freud finally married Martha Bernays. She was concerted and wholly

subservient to her hubby. She was merely make fulling a function that the society

during that clip insisted was proper for all adult females. Freud himself derived his

attitudes toward adult females and his beliefs about the functions of single sexes from

personal experiences in the rigorous civilization of the clip. In the in-between to late

18 100s, Cardinal European society distinguished clearly between the

functions of work forces and adult females. Cultural norms dictated that work forces be responsible for work

outside of the place, and the fiscal well being of the household, while the

adult females? s duties were in the place and with the kids. With these

specific gender functions came the premise of male laterality and female

entry. Females were pictured as serene, composure, animals that were lucky to

hold the love and protection of their superior hubbies. It is in this signifier of

the household where most kids foremost learn the significance and pattern of

hierarchal, autocratic regulation. Here is where they learn to accept group

subjugation against themselves as non-adults, and where they learn to accept male

domination and the group subjugation of adult females. Here is where they learn that it is

the male? s function to work in the community and command the economic life of the

household and to mete out the physical and fiscal penalties and wagess, and

the female? s function to supply the emotional heat associated with maternity

while under the economic regulation of the male. Here is where the relationship of

superordination-subordination, or superior-inferior, or master-slave is first

learned and accepted as “ natural. ” -John Hodge: Feminist Theory P.36

Philosophic definitions of adult females, written about by male philosophers, portion

warped positions that were the consequence of the cultural times and topographic points from which

they originated. The position that adult females are slightly “ less ” than work forces in

many respects, began with the doctrines of Aristotle in the 4th century

BC. Since Aristotle was one of the most influential philosophers of antediluvian

Greece, he had a widespread impact on the thought of many people. Christian

theologists in ancient Europe rediscovered his theories. Aristotle believed that

a adult female? s portion in construct was to provide the container in which the seed,

planted by the male, grows. Aristotle said, “ We should look on the female

every bit being as it were a malformation, though one which occurs in the ordinary class

of nature. ” Although we know now that Aristotle was mistaken in his

biological reading of the female gender, his doctrines had a long-run

impact on the perceptual experience of adult females from a non-biological position. A few

philosophers, such as Plato ( 427-347 BC ) , Condorcet ( 1743-1794 ) , and John Stuart

Mill ( 1806-1873 ) had sentiments that opposed Aristotle and inherently supported

adult females? s rights, but females are still fighting to turn out to the opposite sex

that we are non “ faulty work forces. ” In fact, adult females were seen as inferior

since the clip of Aristotle and throughout Freud? s life-time because they did

non hold phalluss. It seems that it could besides be argued that work forces lack the

button and alternatively hold an elongated and inefficient organ of a similar sort.

These two points depend, of class, on point of position, but the antediluvian

philosophers did evidently non take the female point of position into consideration.

A huge sum of Aristotelean positions are present in Freud? s beliefs. The

biological “ grounds ” given by the ancient philosophers for specific

societal functions are slightly uncomplete. It seemed reasonably logical for adult females to hold

the natural function of caring for kids because she gives birth to them, but

there was no biological account for the premises that adult females were less

of import as human existences, of lesser worth, of course inactive, or should be

ruled by work forces. Simply because adult females give birth to babes, it has someway been

assumed that we are confined to functions as female parents and as caretakers. These

decisions were non drawn from biological observations, but from legion

western minds throughout history who made tremendous errors in their

concluding about adult females. Freud was puzzled by members of the opposite sex and

hence did non try to logically analyze them and come up with nonsubjective

theories sing a adult female? s mind in general. He alternatively concentrated on the

development of a adult female? s head up to adulthood at which point he could no

longer understand it. “ And now you are already prepared to hear that

psychological science excessively is unable to work out the conundrum of muliebrity? In conformance with

its curious nature, psycho-analysis does non seek to depict what a adult female is

that would be a undertaking it could barely perform- but sets about asking how

she comes into being, how a adult female develops out of a kid with a bisexual

temperament. ” Sigmund Freud stated this in his book titled

“ Femininity ” which was published in 1933. From an early age, Freud was

critical of the women’s rightist statement for equality between the sexes. He thought

that it was “ absurd ” to believe that a married adult female could gain as much

money as her hubby, because her domestic duties should take up all

of her clip and energy. Those who challenge Freudian theory of gender functions

belong mostly to the of all time turning and extremely vocal members of the women’s rightist

motion. Something that has been a job in the feminist motion is the

inability to specify feminism, and in bend define the ends of the motion.

“ Womans came together in the adult females? s release motion on the footing that

we were adult females and all adult females are capable to male domination. We saw all adult females as

being our Alliess, and all work forces as being the oppressor. We ne’er questioned the

extent to which American adult females accept the same mercenary and individualistic

values as American work forces. We did non halt to believe that American adult females are merely as

loath as American work forces to fight for a new society based on new values of

common regard, cooperation, and societal duty. “ -Feminist Theory.

Our society maps on the societal norms set throughout history and a complete

revolution would be helter-skelter. All we are seeking for is some grade of

grasp for achievements of the yesteryear, nowadays, and hereafter. The women’s rightist

battle is a uninterrupted and hard one, but people who really name

themselves women’s rightists are non the lone 1s contending to confute certain facets

of Freudian theory and socially determined gender functions. Many critics challenge

Freudian positions of adult females? s functions, female gender, and sexual equality. Mary

Daly is merely one of the 100s of members of the feminist motion. Her

theories do non try to sequester any specific group of adult females by race or category,

but they attempt to concentrate on making a “ antagonistic civilization ” ( a

woman-centered universe in which participants have small to no contact with work forces ) .

She wrote a book entitled Beyond God and Father, in which she encouraged adult females

to give up “ the securities offered by the patriarchal system. ” In

response to Daly, Jeanne Gross stated: Making a counter-world topographic points an

unbelievable sum of force per unit area on the adult female who attempted to ship on such a

undertaking. The force per unit area comes from the belief that the lone true resources for

such an enterprise are ourselves. The yesteryear, which is wholly patriarchal, is

viewed as irreclaimable? If we go about making an alternate civilization without

staying in duologue with others ( and the historical fortunes that give

rise to their individuality ) we have no world cheque for our ends. We run the really

existent hazard that the dominant political orientation of the civilization is re-duplicated in the

feminist motion through cultural imperialism. The jobs happening in the

feminist motion are straight related to the job that adult females seem to be

holding with coming to an apprehension on the attack to utilize when endeavoring to

derive our equality. Sexist subjugation is of primary importance non because it is

the footing of all other subjugation, but because it is the pattern of domination

most people experience, whether their function is that of differentiator or

discriminated against. The feminist motion is the driving force behind any

effort at altering the all excessively common image of the societal barrier bing

between the sexes. “ The significance of the feminist motion ( when it is

no co-opted by timeserving, reactionist forces ) is that it offers a new

ideological meeting land for the sexes, a infinite for unfavorable judgment, battle, and

transmutation. The feminist motion can stop the war between the sexes. It can

transform relationships so that the disaffection, competition, and dehumanisation

that characterize human interaction can be replaced with feelings of familiarity,

mutualness, and chumminess. ” ? Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center The

feminist motion was virtually non-existent during most of the life-time of

Sigmund Freud. He made clear his positions on a adult female? s function in society, but he

was unable to explicate the behaviour of adult females. He resorted alternatively to analyzing the

development of females from their childhood through maturity in an effort to

figure out their complicated mind. Freud? s research was conducted on

purely middle-class Whites during the early 20th century. We are a

society that has ever had clear word picture between childhood, adolescence,

and maturity. It is in the phase of childhood in which Freud believes that

female development is distinguished from that of the males. The dislocation of

development into assorted phases is alone to our specific civilization. In most other

civilizations, there is merely one passage that takes topographic point in life and that is the

one from childhood to adulthood. This “ graduation ” of kinds occurs

instantly after the kid hits pubescence. Harmonizing to Freudian theory, the

important turning point in psychosexual development for gender individuality occurs

at about the age of three. For the first three old ages of life, pleasance is

centered on unwritten satisfaction such as sucking a bottle or chest for milk. The

individual who provides this to the kid is the chief object of the babe? s love

and fondness. The kid develops a sense of trust as a consequence of this

relationship. This is the called the unwritten phase because there is a arrested development that

the kid has to ever hold something in its oral cavity. The following phase is the anal

phase. Struggles around issues such as lavatory preparation, and a sense of

self-denial and control of the environment qualify it. The three-year-olds

displacement of focal point to the sexual variety meats as the beginning of pleasance is labeled the

phallic phase of psychosexual development. It is at this phase that girls notice

that work forces and male childs have phalluss, and they don? T. We, harmonizing to Freud,

acknowledge that without this organ, we can non “ possess ” the female parent ( our

original love object ) the manner a adult male can, particularly our male parents. This

acknowledgment leads misss to develop a sense of lower status and the desire for a

phallus, which Freud called Penis Envy. At the same clip, boys notice that misss

and adult females do non hold phalluss, and this leads the male child to believe that the misss

were someway denied them, or they had them taken off. Freud concluded that this

created a sense of anxiousness in male childs because they are afraid of losing their

phalluss. Freud labeled this the Castration Complex. He besides argued that misss

fault their female parents for our “ inferior anatomy, ” and hence turn our

fondnesss to our male parents in an attempt to achieve the coveted object. By

contrast, boys desire to get married their female parents and replace their male parents. Freudian

theory labels this the Oedipus Complex ( named after the Grecian myth about

Oedipus, who unwittingly killed his male parent and married his female parent ) . When they

learn that they can non “ possess ” their female parents because their challengers

are bigger and stronger, they fear that their male parents will penalize them for

experiencing this manner by emasculating them. Boys get over the Oedipus Complex instead

rapidly and they seek a new love involvement and place with the male parent. Girls

place with their female parents reluctantly, because this designation does non

assist us accomplish what we are wishing for during the phallic phase. The critics of

Freud? s thoughts about female development can be divided into two groups. The

foremost group inquiries whether or non these psychological events really take

topographic point. Because these are psychologically developed and non physically developed,

there is no manner to state if they really exist because they can non be observed

straight. Since there is no cogent evidence or trial of the unconscious procedure, or even of

the unconscious, some argue that these theories can non be considered

scientific. The 2nd group includes a figure of Freud? s pupils. They do

non straight attack the psychoanalytic attack but they disagree with the basic

Freudian preparation of female development. Dorothy Dinnerstein, a psychologist

who has written about the development of gender functions, says: I am disturbed,

like the other extremist critics of our gender agreements, by the sexual dogmatism

that is built into the Freudian position. But I am disinclined to allow the

presence of that dogmatism debar my attending from the key to a manner out of our

gender quandary that Freud, in a sense absent-mindedly, provides.

Feminists? preoccupation with Freud? s patriarchal prejudice, with his failure to

leap with briskness right out of his male Victorian tegument, seems to me wildly

& gt ;

thankless. The conceptual tool that he has put into our custodies is a

radical one. ? ( Dinnerstein, 1976: eleven ) The facet of Freudian theory that

is most criticized by women’s rightists is the accent on phallus enviousness and the position that

our lives must be determined by our anatomy. Many critics have pointed out that

adult females have many anatomical characteristics and capacities that work forces lack. Why should

misss be the 1s to envy and boys be the 1s to fear loss? Boys might detect

that merely adult females have chests ; subsequently, they learn that merely adult females can bear

kids. Why non “ chest enviousness ” or “ womb enviousness ” ? Freud failed

to look at the state of affairs from the female position, and it is blatantly

obvious in his beliefs on female development. There are big Numberss of females

and males who consider themselves to be pupils of Freudian theory. It must be

understood nevertheless that merely because they believe in and back up most of the

major rules that Freud chose to lucubrate on, does non intend that they are

without their ain assorted statements against some of his beliefs. Karen Horney

( 1885-1962 ) was a psychoanalyst and a pupil of Freud. She believed that

Freud? s theory of female psychosexual development reflected a deep male prejudice,

and that it did non do sense to presume that a adult female is mentally affected by a

want for properties of the opposite sex. She besides notes that what Freud

described as features of the “ Masculinity Complex ” ( egoistic

aspiration, enviousness, and the desire for dictatorial power ) are exhibited by neurotic

work forces every bit good as neurotic adult females and hence are non needfully related to the

enviousness of the phallus. She points out that assurance of either sex is based on

the development of a broad scope of human features: endowment, enterprise,

titillating capacity, accomplishment, bravery, and independency. It seems as though work forces

experience the demand to put the “ lower status ” on the shoulders of adult females in

an effort to conceal their ain insecurities, and enviousnesss sing female functions in

reproduction and social patterned advance. While the psychologists of today base

their theories and thoughts on the assorted surveies done by others, Freud based his

thoughts chiefly on the remembrances of adult females who had consulted him for aid.

When he really began to compose about human gender and legalize it as an up

and coming field of survey, Freud stated that adult females were so existences with

sexual demands. He besides suggested that the repression of sexual look was a

major cause of neuroticism in adult females. His theories evolved out of his ain personal

reading of these adult females? s implicit in emotions and unconscious motivations.

While he believed adult females should show our gender, he besides believed that our

fulfilment could merely come about in the signifier of a vaginal climax ( distinguishable from

the clitoric climax, which Freud considered “ masculine ” and

“ infantile ” ) and the ensuing bearing and nurturing of kids.

Although in many ways Freud began a “ release of female gender, ”

his theories had certain stigmas attached which passed on yet another set of

masculine criterions against which adult females were to judge themselves. Freud

unsympathetically analyzed many adult females but none so in deepness as an

eighteen-year-old miss named Dora. He had treated Dora? s male parent for pox a

few old ages earlier. The ground that Dora was brought for the audience was a

missive that her parents had found. The missive fundamentally merely said adieu to her

parents, and made clear that her purpose was to take her ain life. Her parents

idea that she didn? Ts truly intend it, but were concerned plenty to coerce her

to see a physician. Other symptoms of evident unwellness were: a “ nervous

cough ” , a history of fainting enchantments, loss of voice, concerns, and

depression that could be traced back to her early childhood. Freud diagnosed her

aggregation of symptoms as a typical instance of craze, and made it his concern

to calculate out the cause. Freud was convinced that it was a profoundly rooted

remnant from her early gender. Freud? s observation was that Dora was

“ tenderly attached ” to her male parent. Her female parent was the kind of adult female

who spent most of her clip compulsively cleaning the house and executing other

mindless and typical “ female ” activities. Dora was highly critical

of her female parent and the two did non by and large acquire along. Dora? s older brother

sided with the female parent in all of the statements, and that left the household divided

in a changeless mother/son vs. father/daughter confrontation. A governess had been

portion of the family and was really close with Dora until the miss began to

suspect that the ground they got along so good was that the adult female was seeking to

pull her male parent. Dora? s male parent told Freud that he believed he knew what had

caused his girl? s latest symptoms and the suicide note. The household had

formed a close friendly relationship with another married twosome, Herr and Frau K. Frau K,

and energetic and really attractive adult female, had nursed Dora? s male parent through a

long unwellness, and Herr K was really affectionate of Dora. He took her on walks and bought

her nowadayss, and his married woman acted as Dora? s intimate. She took on a function

virtually like a female parent figure for Dora ( which was something that the kid

lacked while she was turning up ) . Two old ages before, Dora told her male parent that

Herr K had made an indecorous proposal to her while they were walking past a lake.

She had slapped him in the face and had gone place entirely. When confronted by her

male parent, Herr K denied that the incident of all time happened, and insisted that books

with expressed sexual scenes had affected the miss, and that she had fanaticized

the full thing. The male parent was convinced by Herr K? s account and left it

at that. Dora continued to take a firm stand that he interrupt off dealingss with the K? s,

particularly Frau K. Her male parent refused to make so on the evidences that Herr K was

inexperienced person and that his relationship with Frau K was wholly non-sexual. Dora

was convinced of two things: her male parent and Frau K had been holding an matter for

old ages, and Herr K had tried to score her. “ I came to the decision that

Dora? s narrative must match to the facts in every regard, ” stated Freud

in mention to Dora? s reading of world. Analysis of her dreams was

consistent with Freud? s theory of the miss? s Oedipal love for her male parent. He

believed that Dora was responding to her male parent? s matter with Frau K as if she

were a wronged married woman or a betrayed lover- as if she were the adult female her male parent

one time loved, or the adult female he now loved. Since she was neither, her reaction,

which Freud interpreted as green-eyed monster, was inappropriate. He besides thought that her

reaction to Herr K? s progresss was “ wholly and wholly

hysterical. ” Dora had felt disgust as a reaction towards Herr K. Disgust is

an “ unwritten phenomenon ” , and this along with her pharynx symptoms of

coughing and loss of voice, led Freud to the absurd decision that her symptoms

were related to her phantasies of her male parent and Frau K holding unwritten intercourse.

Although she denied it, Freud insisted that Dora was sexually attracted to Herr

K every bit good. Freud stated “ Her feeling for him reflected both her feeling for

her male parent and her feeling for Frau K. That is, she identified Herr K with her

male parent, and herself with Frau K. Thus her attractive force to Herr K was a

palingenesis of her male parent? s love matter with Frau K. ” Freud believed

that the two work forces were involved in an mute confederacy in which Dora was a

pawn: her male parent would disregard Herr K? s attempted seductions of his girl in

exchange for Herr K? s make-believe ignorance of his married woman? s matter with Dora? s

male parent. Freud besides knew the male parent? s motivation for conveying Dora to see him. He

wanted Freud to speak her out of believing that there was anything more than

friendly relationship between him and Frau K. Dora was a immature miss caught in a web of prevarications

and treachery, where she could non turn to anyone for aid. Her parents were

straight involved in lead oning her, and Freud was seeking to brainwash her into

believing that it was her mistake for experiencing the manner she did, and that it was all

in her head. Freud knew the existent state of affairs, yet he systematically hid the truth

from Dora, and led her to believe that she had profoundly rooted jobs that

started in her childhood. In world, Dora was holding a really normal reaction to

the rough truth of what her male parent was making. Freud? s intervention of Dora lasted

for three months, until she suddenly terminated it, much to Freud? s

letdown. Freud interpreted her unexpected expiration of her therapy as

grounds of his freshly developed theory of transference. This theory states that

the patient transportations to the healer old feelings and struggles, which she

one time felt for people in her yesteryear, such as her female parent and male parent. Freud believed

that in the same manner that she had transferred her love for her male parent to Herr K,

she now transferred some of the same feelings towards Freud. But these feelings

were positive and negative, and as a consequence of the intervention she received at the

custodies of Herr K and her male parent, she would take retaliation on all of them by

abandoning Freud. Freud thought that Dora was stating, “ Work force are so abhorrent

that I would instead non get married. This is my retaliation. ” About a twelvemonth and a

half subsequently, Dora revisited Freud for intervention of facial neuralgy. Freud told

her that her hurting was a self-punishment for a “ dual offense ” : the

long-ago smack at Herr K when he had made progresss toward her, and her retaliation on

Freud by ending the intervention before it was completed. Freud ne’er saw her

once more after that but in 1905, he published “ Fragment of an Analysis of a

Case of Hysteria, ” better known as the instance of Dora. Dora was non really

a hysterical patient. She was merely a immature adult female in daze due to her

father? s matter, her changeless combat with her female parent and brother, and the

fact that a married adult male ( who was besides a friend of the household ) was hitting on her

and no 1 truly believed it. Freud could hold said to her “ You are right,

and they are incorrect, ” but alternatively, he chose to pull strings Dora? s head and

do her believe that the whole scene was a consequence of her childhood sexual

insecurities. Freud related neuroticism and craze in adult females to marriage and

sexual defeat in most instances. His account is obscure and it seems as

though he merely tries to do it applicable to the full gender in any

state of affairs. Under the cultural conditions of today, matrimony has long ceased to

be a Panacea for the nervous problems of adult females ; and if we physicians still rede

matrimony in such instances, we are however cognizant that, on the contrary a miss

must be really healthy if she is able to digest it? .On the contrary, the remedy

for nervous unwellness originating form matrimony, would be matrimonial unfaithfulness. But

the more purely a adult female has been brought up and the more sternly she has

submitted to the demands of civilisation, the more she is afraid of taking this

manner out ; and in the struggle between her desires and her sense of responsibility, she one time

more seeks safety in neuroticism. -Freud, 1976a, p.195 Evidence shows that work forces and

adult females in utmost instances have the same grade of neuroticism and craze as a consequence

of matrimony and sexual defeat. The symptoms are the same regardless of

gender. Freud was highly assumptive when it came to pulling decisions

about adult females. For illustration, Freud said “ One might see qualifying

muliebrity psychologically as giving penchant to passive purposes? It is possibly

the instance that in a adult female, on the footing of her portion in the sexual map, a

penchant for inactive behaviour and inactive purposes is carried over into her

life? ” He is presuming that a adult female? s function in the sexual map is a

inactive one. It seems to me that the males have the inactive function in this

state of affairs sing that it is the adult female who carries and gives birth to

babes. Feminists who have been reasoning against Freudian theory for many old ages

all come to the same basic decision about his doctrines on adult females: Freud was

greatly influenced by the social norms of his clip, and that factor had a

great impact on his theories about adult females? s functions. Since the yearss of Sigmund

Freud, our society has progressed a great trade, and adult females have been bit by bit

accepted as more than the belongings of their hubbies. It is the freedom to

make up one’s mind her ain fate ; freedom from sex-determined function ; freedom from

society? s oppressive limitations ; freedom to show her ideas to the full and

to change over them freely into action. Feminism demands the credence of adult female? s

right to single scruples and judgement. It postulates that adult females? s

indispensable worth stems from her common humanity and does non depend on the other

relationships of her life. During the 19th century, feminism was virtually

non-existent, and the beliefs of Freud and other great heads were merely accepted

as fact. The stereotyped function of adult females as inactive caretakers of the place and

of kids that existed throughout Freud? s life-time, is bit by bit decreasing

and adult females are deriving societal position every bit good as regard from the work forces who at one

clip were out oppressors. The feminist motion has played a immense function in

altering the sentiments of many people that carried with them the same

doctrines as Freud in respects to adult females and their capablenesss as worlds. This

shockable nature merely succeeded in doing adult females more and more determined to

turn out their “ worth ” to members of the opposite sex. Although Freud was

taking the battalion of male chauvinists in the late 19th century he has since

been overpowered by females that are no longer afraid to state what they feel or

act on their urges.

Bell Hooks ; Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. c.1984 by bell maulerss ;

South End Press 2 ) Freud, Sigmund ; “ Femininity ” from Juanita H.

Williams, erectile dysfunction. Psychology of Women. New york: W.W. Norton, 1979 3 ) Hunter College

Womans? s Studies Collective ; Women? s Realities, Women? s Choices NY: Oxford

University Press, 1983 4 ) Smithsonian World ; Gender: The Enduring Paradox NYC:

UNAPIX Entertainment Inc. , 1996 5 ) Williams, Juanita H. ; Psychology of Women NY:

W.W. Norton & A ; Company, 1987

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