The Hebrews started out enslaved by the Egyptians until they were freed by Moses around 1250 BC. Then the Exodus began from Egypt to the promised land. Moses led the Hebrews to Mt. Sinai to await the word of the lord. Moses dies and his successor Joshua, son of Nun, comes to bring his people to attack east of the Jordan river in Jericho against the Canaanites. Next, was the conquest of Hazor, one of the strongest towns in Canaan the Isrealites took over Hazor and the most Canaanite empire.
Before Israel had its first monarchy there was a system of tribal society. There were twelve tribes who were led in times of peace by the elders and in times of war by the judges. The Judges were more like the tribal chieftains several of the Judges were active at the same time, each leading his own tribe into battle with a different foe. There was war constantly with many different peoples: the five lords of the Philistines, the Canaanites, the Sidonians, and the Hivites who lived on Mt. Lebanon (Judges,3:3) The most fierce of all the people were the Philistines ,a sea people, who landed on the shores of Canaan around the end of the thirteenth century BCE. By the eleventh century the Philistines had five major kingdoms in Canaan (Gaza, Ashdod, Asshkelon, Eekron, and Gath) and were constantly at war with the Israelites attempting to force them inland.
The last verse in the book of Judges In those days there was no king in Israel and every man did what was right in his own eyes this proves that the Israelites needed a King. Samuel last of the Judges was chosen to appoint a king. The first king of the Israelites in 1029 BCE was Saul who came from the tribe of Benjamin which was between the northern tribes of Ephriam and the southern tribes of Judah. Saul defeated
the Ammonites in Gilead, the Moabites, the Amalekites, the Arameans, the Edomites. Saul even held the advance of the Philistines. Despite Sauls victories he failed to push the Philistines to the coastal plain and tension grew between Saul and the prophet Samuel. Saul not performing up to par to the word of the lord according to Samuel; Saul was ousted and a new king to be named. Saul would die in battle a short while after his dethroning against the Philistines on Mt. Gilboa.
The Israelites would need a new king to rule the newly formed kingdom so Samuel chose David of Bethlehem, the slayer of Goliath. For seven years a civil war was fought between the tribes controlled by David the new king and Ish-Bosheth son of Saul. The civil war ended when Ish-Bosheth was murdered and the people asked David to save them from the Philistines. David not only maintained the empire left to him by Saul but fortified it to a major political and religious power in that area. The new king defeated the Arameans and annexed Aram-Damascus in the east he routed the Moabites, subjugated the state of Edom, and defeated the Ammonites. In order to keep a secure northern border David made a pact with Hiram, King of Tyre. David would not stop there he would go on to abolish all Canaanite enclaves and took the city of Jerusalem from the Jebusites fortifying a capital for the strongest kingdom on the Fertile Crescent.
David was getting old and his declining health started to cause fighting between the sons and priests who the next king would be. The next king was Solomon who was appointed by David before his death in 967 BCE. Solomon to show every one in the kingdom he was a serious leader he began to strike out against all his enemies. Some were banished some exiled. Solomon built temples and permanent towns.
Solomons kingdom did not outlive his death. The kingdom was immediately split in two Rehoboam ruled the south and Jeroboam ruled the north. The two kingdoms fought a war for decades over land, culture, and religion. The Israelites lost most of the kingdom due to the internal fighting. Samiaria was founded in 877 BCE and Jehoshaphat was the ruler (of Judah) from