History of Classroom Inclusion essays
The mistreatment of individuals with disabilities in the past was commonplace.Attitudes began to change with increased scientific understanding and democratic values.Special schools for the deaf and blind were developed.Disabled persons were seen as capable of learning.Conditions in institutions for the mentally ill and retarded became more humane."Thefirst federal laws of the United States designed to support individuals with disabilities were passed in 1798" (Bauer & Shae, 1999).
During the nineteenth century, reformers pushed for new and more humane institutions.Many children especially those with severe or multiple disabilities were ignored."Before the passage of the federal legislation mandating services for the students with disabilities, these individuals were routinely and legally excluded from school" (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000).
Since World War II rapid changes occurred in student enrollment, teacher training programs and state support.A national shift in philosophy emerged due to the return of wounded war veterans.They opposed leading unproductive lives separate from their "abled" peers.The new trend was toward integration and making individuals lives as normal as possible (Bauer & Shae, 1999).
Many twentieth century developments contributed to the advancement of special education."It has been shaped by federal law, the civil rights movement and related court cases, and changing social and political beliefs" (Friend & Bursuck, 1999).In order to improve special education, government intervention was required.Most educators were not trained to work with students with disabilities.However, in 1975 there was a dramatic change with in implementation of the Education of All Handicapped Children Act (EAHCA) and the mandate to teach those children in the least restrictive environment (Mastropieri & Scruggs, 2000).