Imperialism Essay Research Paper Definition the desire
Imperialism Essay, Research Paper
Definition: the desire to get settlements. ( esp. 1870-1914 ) After low point in the beginning of the nineteenth century, there was a resurgence in Imperialism ( New Imperialism ) as European powers fought over Asia and Africa. In 1875 merely 10 % of Africa was under European control. In 1895 90 % of Africa was under European control. The taking imperial powers were Britain, France, Russia, and Germany. Motivations: Economic: “ the urge was ever one of capitalistic greed for inexpensive natural stuffs, advantageous markets, good investings, and fresh Fieldss of development ” ( Marxist account ) Argument against this: “ the export of capital in fact seems to hold small connexion with imperial enlargement ” ( Internet Explorer: in 1913 Britain had more money invested in the US than in any settlement ) Diplomatic:
Post-Franco-Prussian war ( 1870-71 ) the hazard of war in Europe was excessively great therefore competitions were transferred to Asia and Africa. The Gallic sought to counterbalance loss of prestigiousness from the war with Prussia by deriving success overseas. Strategic:
Internet Explorer: Britain sought control over Egypt to procure the path to its Indies settlements ( the consequence of this was that other imperial powers annexed parts to counterbalance for the strategic appropriations and imperialism gained its ain impulse ) Prestige:
Loss in the race for settlements was seen as loss of national prestigiousness. Imperialism as a consequence of the Growth of Democracy in W. Europe:
Chauvinistic multitudes through the democratic system backed and asked for imperialist policies. ( the settlements provided for exhilaration of the multitudes & # 8212 ; like staff of life and circuses in Roman times ) ? The White Man? s Burden?
Some felt they had a responsibility as & # 8216 ; more advanced people & # 8217 ; to assist the less advanced. Social Darwinism:
Applied Darwin & # 8217 ; s theories on development onto international dealingss. ( provinces must spread out or worsen, they must increase their imperiums or be taken over by others. ) Exploration:
the feats of adventurers aroused great involvement Technology:
Technological progresss meant that immense sums of districts could be conquered with comparative easiness. ( one time occupied they were easier to administrate due to the usage of tech. Such as the telegraph and telephone. ) By 1905, the enthusiasm for imperialism died out because of reverses. ( Spain was defeated by the US, the Boer wars, the conflict of Adowa ( where the Italian ground forces lost out to Abyssinian military personnels ) , and licking of the Russians at the custodies of the Japanese. ) Main Events of the Period 1870-1914: The Scramble for Africa. Europeans settled in settlements like Algeria ( the French ) and South Africa ( the English ) Britain acquired Cyprus France proclaimed a associated state over Tunis in 1881. Britain occupied Egypt in the summ
Er of 1882. ( but it represented a ‘noose unit of ammunition England’s neck’ instead so a benefit ) In 1907 the Congo became a Belgian settlement France founded the Gallic Congo. Germany claimed South West Africa, Togoland and the Cameroons every bit good as western New Guinea and certain Pacific islands. The Berlin conference ( 1884 ) There should be free trade for all states in the Congo bassin. Britain’s prevailing place in the Niger was recognized. Laid down philosophies of ‘effective occupation’ and proper presentment of appropriations. ( speeded up the breakdown procedure in Africa ) Conflict btw France and G.B. over W. Africa Conflict btw G.B. and Germany in E. Africa ( Britain obtained Kenya and Uganda while Germany obtained Tanganyika ) Conflict in S. Africa btw Britain, Germany, Portugal, and the Boer Republics. ‘Fashoda incident’ ( Upper Nile ) brought Britain and France on the brink of war- they so embarked towards an entente cordiale. The scramble for Africa ended in 1898. ? Scramble? for China. Britain gained entree to ports and the island of Hong Kong ( as a consequence of the 1839 — 42 war ) Soviet union gained district at China’s disbursal to hold entree to warm H2O ports. The Gallic conquered Indo-China during the 1880’s The first serious onslaught on the Chinese mainland was made by Japan. WWI and the initiation of the League of Nations every bit good as competitions between imperialist powers prevented the breakdown of China. The breakdown of the Ottoman Empire. By 1914 Germany was the dominant power at Constantinople. The alliances of WWI had been ‘forged’ during the imperialist epoch but non determined by it. ( ie: G.B. entered WWI on the side of her two old enemies: France and Russia ) The Eastern Question Definition: Who will make full the vacuity created by the diminution of Ottoman power and backdown from the part? The place of the powers: Soviet union: ( most probably to gain from the diminution of the O.E. ) She shared a boundary line with O.E. / had military advantage over O.E. Russia sought entree to the Mediterranean. The peoples of the Balkans were chiefly Orthodox ( like the Russians ) which gave Russia a valid claim to act upon in the Balkans The pan-Slav motion to liberate the Balkans from Ottoman control was picked up by Russia. Austro-Hungary: ( regarded the Balkans as of critical involvement )
Was concerned about the spread of patriotism in the Balkans because of its ain transnational individuality. Sought to keep her entree to the Adriatic Sea ( through Croatia ) Was determined, as a inquiry of prestigiousness, non to lose out in the Balkans. Great Britain / France:
Supported the maintaining of the Ottoman Empire, in order to forestall farther Russian influence in the Balkans. Germany:
Under Bismark, Germany had no direct involvement in the Balkans because Bismarck sought to avoid struggle between the great powers.