Introduction to ambahan Essay

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Introduction to ambahan Essay

Ambahans inscribed on a bamboo spline
The ambahan is a literary merchandise and poetic look of the Southern Mangyans of Mindoro. Philippines. Although there are about seven different cultural groups populating in Mindoro. jointly called the Mangyans. these groups are rather distinguishable from each other as to linguistic communication. imposts. and manner of life. Merely the cultural group life in the South of Mindoro. approximately consisting the countries within the municipalities of Bulalacao ( San Pedro ) . Mansalay. Oriental Mindoro and San Jose. Occidental Mindoro. claims the name Mangyan as the descriptive rubric of their folk. To emphasize their point. they might add the epiteth: “Hanunuo” Mangyan. that is. a “truly. existent. genuine” Manygan. Together with their northern neighbours. the Buhids. they possess a pre-Spanish authorship system. considered to be of Indic beginning. with characters showing the unfastened syllables of the linguistic communication. Two distinguishable syllabic scripts are still in practical usage among the cultural groups in Mindoro. viz. the northern Buhid on one manus and the southern Buhid with the Hanunuo-Mangyans on the other. The being of a authorship system among these folks surely accounts mostly for the wealth of literature prevalent among them. One of the literary merchandises. the one written down most often on bamboo-tubes or splines. is the ambahan. For better apprehension and grasp of the ambahans presented here. a short lineation on the character and usage of the ambahan will be given here. As a definition. it can be stated that the ambahan is:

A. A rhythmic poetic look with a metre of seven syllable lines and holding rhythmic end-syllables. B. It is most frequently presented as a chant without a determined musical pitch or concomitant by musical instruments. C. Its intent is to show in an allegorical manner. liberally utilizing poetic linguistic communication. certain state of affairss or certain features referred to by the one declaiming the verse form. The metre of seven syllables in one line is the feature of the ambahan which most evidently distinguishes it from other sorts of Hanunuo-Mangyan poesy. However. there are exclusions to the regulation. For case. more than seven syllables may be found at the beginning of the ambahan. particularly when it starts with the standard look magkunkuno ( speaks. says ) because the 1 who “speaks” here may hold a long name incorporating more than the usual seven syllables. Actually. these first lines should non be considered as portion of the verse form proper. but instead as an debut to or an account of the fortunes which gave rise to the ambahan itself. Sometimes. there may be more than seven syllables because the employed word or words can non be shortened and no other combination of words is available. On the other manus. a line may incorporate less than seven syllables in order to continue the significance of the line itself which might be disturbed if more syllables were added. However. the last exclusion seldom occurs. In an attempt to conform to the regulation of holding merely seven syllables in each line. the composer tries to suit his words within the pre-determined measure of syllables.

This accounts for the many elisions and contactions of words that make the reading of the ambahan in the Hanunuo-Mangyan book so hard and exacerbating to the transcriber. Thus nirwasan comes from niruwasan ; nilkasan from nilukasan ; the mono-syllables gin from ginan ; u from una. Conversely. the words may be extended. i. e. syllables may be added in order to hold the needed seven syllables. In most instances. the normal process involves the usage of affixes and postfixs. both of which are extensively used in the Filipino linguistic communications. The most common one in the Hanunuo-Mangyan linguistic communication is the suffix -an. Manok becomes manukan. balunos becomes balunusan. without a alteration in significance. Within the word. “extensions” may besides be found which might be old infixes. no longer common. So dayap becomes dalayap. layaw becomes lugayaw. Another manner of lengthening a word is by reiterating the word itself. non so much to do it greatest in significance ( e. g. in Tagalog: laking-laki ) . but instead to finish the seven syllable demand. While it is non my purpose to be proficient on this point. as a linguist’s analysis of morphological phenomena would be. the foregoing illustrations demonstrate that the prescribed strategy of seven syllables in ambahan poetry gives ample chance for lexical callisthenicss. an exercising which may intrigue many pupils.

The riming end-syllables are an indispensable characteristic of the ambahan. The most common rhyming syllable is -an. being a regular postfix for verbs and substantives in the Hanunuo-Mangyan linguistic communication. But other combinations with the vowel a are instead common excessively. such as in lines holding the end-syllables: a. Alaska. silver. Air National Guard. as. aw. ay. Here the vowel a is combined with about all the consonants in the Philippine alphabet. In the same manner. the vowels I ( or vitamin E ) and o ( or u ) can be found as the rhyming syllables. either entirely or in combination. e. g. : I. Idaho. ing. information science. it. and o. Doctor of Optometry. ok. on. ong. os. ot. oy. The rhyming in the ambahan is attendant. i. e. one time started with -an. all lines will stop in -an. This appears to be in contrast to the riming strategy of a Tagalog verse form. where at the terminal of a line a vowel rime may include any consonant in combination with this vowel. The ambahan is stricter in this regard. though it is interesting to observe that here and at that place consonants. if belonging to the same phonic category. may be included as the riming consonant in combination with the riming vowel. Hence. the word inwag rimes with ma-ayad because both g and vitamin D belong to the phonic category of sonant Michigans. The word humbak rimes with dagat because both Ks and T belong to the phonic category of voiceless Michigans.

The word sundong. lumon and tayutom are the end-syllables of one ambahan because nanogram. n. and m belong to the phonic category of sonant sonorants. Of class. it is non because the Hanunuo-Mangyan knows anything about phonetics that these cases occur. but it is a fact that the interchanges of these consonants are non considered misdemeanors of the unwritten regulations of the ambahan. provided that the vowel remains the same. The ambahan is a chanted poetry. but it is changed obviously or about recited. The rendition of the ambahan with musical pitch might differ from individual to individual. Some might chant the words like in common conversation ; others might utilize it a monotonic recitation ; or still others might sing it with a distinguishable tune. But by and large. it can be said that when an ambahan is “sung. ” there is merely a little musical pitch discernable. except possibly towards the terminal. when the last syllables are drawn out a spot to bespeak that the chant is about to stop. Furthermore. it is good deserving observing that the ambahan. is “sung” without the concomitant of musical instruments. as differentiated from another sort of Mangyan poetry. the urukay. which is sooner chanted to the concomitant of the homemade guitar. One who has a cognition of the linguistic communication of the Hanunuo-Mangyans as it is used in their day-to-day conversation. will be able to understand really small of the linguistic communication that is used in the ambahan. The linguistic communication used in the ambahan differs from the spoken linguistic communication. though many a word used widely in the day-to-day Hanunuo-Mangyan linguistic communication is besides used in the ambahan-vocabulary. It is rather possible to roll up a long list of words ( finally a complete
lexicon ) that are used merely in the ambahan poetry. but. for the intent of this book. merely a few words need to be mentioned. Conversational language| Ambahan language| English|

amang| bansay| father|
inang| suyong| mother|
danom| kagnan| water|
balay| labag| house|
niyog| bu-anay| coconut|
bagaw| duyan| talk|
mata| pamidkan| eye|
That the words of the ambahan vocabulary are found non merely in the ambahan of the Hanunuo-Mangyans but besides in the literary merchandises of the adjacent Mangyan folk. seems to be a important happenstance worth look intoing. particularly if it is remembered that these other folks use a colloquial linguistic communication different from the Hanunuo-Mangyan linguistic communication. Some inquiries that would face the research worker are the followers: Where make these ambahan words come from? Are at that place other idioms in the Philippines from which they may hold been derived? Or do we hold to turn our attending to other states like Indonesia or India to acquire an account? Here is a possible field of research that should give a linguist plenty stuff to work on. In some of the ambahans here presented. it will be noticed that the subject is about a bird. a flower. a tree. or an insect. Other ambahans. though non nature verse forms in the rigorous sense of the term. trade with the Sun. the Moon. the stars. the rain and the air current. When a Mangyan poet writes of a flower. he writes of itnot for the intent of observing its beauty or aroma but to do it an fable or a symbol of human life. it’s jobs. and its challenges. Sometimes the symbolism of a bird or flower may be clear plenty. as when a male child negotiations to his miss about “a beautiful flower that he would wish to convey place. ” Very frequently. nevertheless. one symbol may mention to different conditions or fortunes and. therefore. becomes a multiple symbol. An scrutiny of ambahan no. 114 will assist clear up this point. What does the verse form mean? First. it means merely what it says: “Be careful. or you will be stung by a bee. Take safeguards in acquiring honey. ” This would be the actual reading of the verse form. The added significance of allegorical
reading would depend. of class. on the juncture and fortunes. such as mounting a mountain. traveling to sea. traveling to town. prosecuting in a competition with another individual. or traveling to the parents to inquire for the manus of their girl. The complex set of significances therefore woven into an ambahan are bit by bit unravelled merely after the verse form had been analyzed with much attention and forbearance. A related survey which is deserving adverting at this point would be an probe into the psychological motive for the Mangyan’s frequent usage of workss. animate beings. and nature symbols and their preference for allegorical poesy. [ Postma. Antoon SVD. Treasure of a Minority. Manila: Arnoldus Press. Inc. . 1981. ]

The beginning of the ambahan

A Hanunuo-Mangyan adult female intoning an ambahan at a community ambahan session [ Source: Antoon Postma ] If you ask a Hanunuo-Mangyan. “Where did you acquire this ambahan? . ” he will most likely reply. “I copied it from person else. ” That is rather likely. for the ambahan has been popularized by being copied on any piece of bamboo. such as the container for baccy or apog ( calcium hydroxide ) . the scabbard or sheath of a bola tie. a fiddle or guitar. and even on the bamboo beams of a house. When a Mangyan discovers a nice ambahan. he uses his knife to scratch it on bamboo. in the antique Indic-derived book. Therefore. he has “copied” it. In reply to the same inquiry. another Mangyan may answer. “We obtained this from our sires. ” Most of the ambahans they possess now have been handed down from parents to kids through figured bass copying. Yet there is no uncertainty that new ambahans are still being written today by the poets or composers. although it is difficult to happen out who these poets are. A Mangyan would ne’er acknowledge that he is composing ambahans. To find the approximative clip in which an ambahan was written. two standards may be suggested: the topic and the sort of words used. The first standard can non be applied without reserve. for the topic of the ambahan is sometimes really general and true of any period. But if we find mention in the ambahan to Moro onslaughts or to Mangyans still populating along the sea-shore. we are on surer land. for the onslaughts of the Moros are known to hold occurred at a certain clip. and the Mangyans lived along the shores before the non-Mangyans settled on the island. On the other manus.
when an ambahan poet writes of traveling to America. the verse form is certain to hold been written in modern times. The 2nd standard. the sort of words used. is more dependable and. if used by experts. would be a more certain indicant of the age of the ambahan. By utilizing this standard. ambahans may be categorized into three categories. The first type is the ambahan that lone uses the poetic linguistic communication with a lower limit of modern-day words. Sometimes common Hanunuo-Mangyan words are used. but this type of ambahan restricts itself chiefly to the usage of literary words. i. e. words non used in day-to-day conversation. Harmonizing to the Mangyans themselves. this is the oldest sort of ambahan. The following type of ambahan is that in which words borrowed from neighbouring folks. particularly the Buhid folk. are used. Frequent contact with this folk has made the Hanunuo-Mangyans accept these borrowed words and looks which found their manner into their ambahans. Last. there is the ambahan of ulterior times. in which loan-words from Spanish. Tagalog or Bisaya are apparent. The painstaking survey by linguists of the words used in the ambahan may provide the concluding reply to the inquiry of the clip in which an ambahan was written. [ Postma. Antoon. Mangyan Treasures. Manila: Arnoldus Press. Inc. . 1995. ]

The ambahan and its utilizations

Hanunuo-Mangyan verse forms in the Mangyan syllabic book inscribed on betel nut containers made of bamboo The ambahans are really common among the Hanunuo-Mangyans. About 30 per centum of the Hanunuo-Mangyans do non read or compose the pre-Spanish Hanunuo-Mangyan book. but it would be rare so for a Mangyan non to cognize the art of the ambahan. Of class. a Mangyan will rapidly deny any cognition of the ambahan. but this is merely a polite manner of declining to demostrate such cognition. Peoples who have tried to roll up ambahans will be the first to acknowledge the trouble of doing the Mangyans recite the ambahans outside of the proper juncture for making it. Aside from the Hanunuo-Mangyans. the adjacent Mangyan folk besides know about the ambahan. Though the existent extent to which the ambahan is known by these other folk has non been to the full investigated. it is certain that this type of poesy is besides common among the Buhid-Mangyans. The linguistic communication of the Buhid is wholly different from that of the Hanunuo-Mangyans. but one may still
partially understand the literary merchandises of the other. The ambahan can besides be found among the folks populating deep in the mountains of Mindoro. These indigens go down to the Lowlandss really seldom. and on one of these occassions I was lucky plenty to get some transcripts of their ambahans. The Hanunuo-Mangyans do non understand much of it. except when sole ambahan words are used. However. before anything more important can be said on this affair. one must research the field farther. The poetry of the Iraya-Mangyans ( in the North of Mindoro ) is besides really similar to the ambahan-type. i. e. they besides have the characteristic heptasyllabic metre and riming end-syllables. Ambahans are known and recited by Hanunuo-Mangyans. both old and immature. Of class. different ambahans will be appropriate for different age groups. The kids decidedly have their ain sort of ambahans. something which might be considered as the equivalent of our baby’s room rime. However. even in these rimes all the elements of the ambahan are present ; the chief differentiation lies in the simpleness of the linguistic communication used. The ambahans for kids. nevertheless. are short. most of them incorporating non more than six lines. A male child ( kan-akan ) and a miss ( daraga ) would be familiar with the ambahans fit for them. but once they are married. they would introduce themselves with the 1s that are appropriate for their new province of life. Like all poesy. the ambahan is an look of an thought or feeling in a beautiful and harmonious linguistic communication. Unlike other signifiers of poesy. nevertheless. the ambahan is non poesy for its ain interest or for the poet’s satisfaction. The ambahan is chiefly a verse form of societal character ; it finds its true being in society. It is created by the Mangyans to function practical intents within the community. It is used by the parents in educating their kids. by immature people in wooing each other. by a visitant in inquiring for nutrient and by a comparative command adieu or farewell. Of class. it would be a error to believe that the Mangyans converse with each other merely by the ambahan. If a adult male comes from his field. he would non utilize an ambahan to state his married woman that he is hungry ; he will show the feeling of his tummy in field and clear linguistic communication. But by and large talking. the ambahan is used on those occasions when something abashing. unpleasant. delicate or even cherished ( as love ) has to be said. For case. a male child may state a miss in apparent linguistic communication that he will ne’er bury her. but it would sound so much nicer if he were to make so in an ambahan. The societal nature of
the ambahan has given rise to a sort of verbal competition. Whenever Mangyans are together. a few of them ( frequently the older coevals ) will thirstily vie with each other in the ability to declaim the ambahan called for by the topographic point and the juncture. Among these occasions are celebrations held in connexion with reburying. One Mangyan might dispute another with an ambahan. for illustration. This starts the competition. The people gather around the two contestants ( without understanding. without regulations. without stakes ) . listening intently to the ambahans recited alternately by the two oppositions. Each ambahan recited is an reply to the job or subject propounded in the ambahan preceeding it. Both contestants are lustily cheered and encouraged by their protagonists. In most instances. the 1 who recites last is declared the victor. The competition may travel deep into the dark. Whether one or the other wins is unimportant ; what matters most is the amusement derived from the competition. A few concluding comments about the interlingual rendition of the ambahan may still be of involvement. A research worker who happens to be in the mountains of Mansalay and becomes acquainted with the ambahan will go enthusiastic about it and may even desire to interpret some of them into his ain linguistic communication. But before he can interpret the ambahan. he must analyze the antediluvian Indic book. After holding mastered it good. he will happen out to his discouragement. that he still can non read everything written on the bamboo. This is due to the fact that the book itself does non demo the concluding consonant of each syllable. When he has overcome the letdown. he will likely seek to acquire an ambahan written down in clear. clear letters. Tape-recording the ambahan would take away the initial troubles of copying from book. However. even so he will non understand all the deductions of the ambahan unless the Mangyan can explicate it. In interpreting an ambahan. we find a particular trouble originating from the symbolic significance of the words used. The Mangyan may provide the applied allegorical significance but he might non understand the actual significances of certain words. The significances of these words can frequently be discovered because of the frequent usage of repeat of thoughts. Sometimes complete lines may be repeats of the same thought in synonymous words. Before the ambahan can be wholly understood. it is imperative to roll up as many samples of the ambahan as possible. This is the chief work being done at nowadays in this field. A elaborate comparing of specimens. winnow and classifying words. and careful experiments in interpreting the words into
another context have to be done by experts in this field of research. Merely so will the ambahan emerge in the comprehensiveness of its beauty and meaning. The present anthology of ambahans is selected from a aggregation that started in 1958. In fixing this choice. it was non an easy undertaking to make up one’s mind on the best manner of grouping or set uping these ambahans. It was eventually decided to detect a double system in sorting these Mangyan verse forms. The first system is to take the obvious and actual significance as expressed by the verse form. The 2nd is the allegorical or applied significance that can be gleaned from the ambahan. With this double system in head. the ambahans in this aggregation have been arranged harmonizing tot he life-cycle of the Hanunuo-Mangyans. Hence. this aggregation of ambahans starts with the cradle and ends with the grave. It is believed that this agreement is the most satisfactory. [ Postma. Antoon SVD. Treasure of a Minority. Manila: Arnoldus Press. Inc. . 1981. ]

Ambahan: Birth and babyhood
Since the purpose of this aggregation of ambahans is to show a cross-section of the Mangyan poetic poetry with regard to the life-cycle of the Mangyans. the first ambahans. to be chronological. should refer to the first chapters of human life. The undermentioned series of common cradle vocals in ambahan manner might be a all right illustration of how the vocals can be different in rime and metaphor whereas the implicit in subject is the same. Ambahan 3|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| My beloved babe. make non shout
’cause the wild cat might hear us!
The large one from over at that place.
with his atrocious long-stretched ululation!
Helpless are we if he comes.
Our lance is broken still
and our bola tie set and blunt! | Huwag Ka ngang umiyak
Hala Ka at mapukaw
Pusang-ligaw SA gubat
Ngumiyaw. maghihiyaw
Wala kitang pambugaw
Sibat nati’y nawasak
Gulok nati’y nabingaw! |

Ambahan 4|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Don’t be noisy. babe beloved!
The wild iro might come here.
The one out of the deep forests.
How to contend him when he comes?
Broken is our spear in two
and our bola tie disappeared! | H’wag Ka ngang magulo
May laog nanunubok
Mula gubat susugod
Wala kitang panghamok
Sibat nati’y napulpol
Itak ay anong purol! |

Ambahan 5|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| You. my babe. don’t make noise!
Some unusual animate being might come.
coming from across the watercourse.
Knocking on the house. he will.
with his glistening crisp claws.
No arms for us to kill ;
our bola tie we can non utilize.
rusty is our spear and blunt. | Anak. ‘wag kang ngumalngal
Hala Ka. may bakulaw!
Sa dahilig do’n buhat
Tutuktok SA suliras
Kay tulis nanogram galamay
Wala kitang pamatay
Tong itak walang saysay
Kinalawang ‘yang sibat! |

Ambahan: Childhood
Sweet are the memories of our childhood. For the Mangyan kid. it is a clip of unconcern and insouciance. even if the kid has to take his portion of the household responsibilities to the step of his capacities. It is with feelings of mawkishness and homesickness that a immature adult male recalls the happy old ages of his young person that passed off excessively fast. It is besides with pride that he remembers the love and kindness shown to him by his parents. Ambahan 6 ( 4 ) |

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| That clip. when I was still immature.
( I was merely a babe still )
when I sat on mother’s lap.
when she rocked me in a cot.
in a cradle freshly made.
Mommy lulling me asleep.
did non go forth me in a cot.
in her weaponries she cradled me.
Oh. how sweet these memories!
wish I could mount one time once more
in the cradle lovely made!
So I could be demoing off
how I grew so attractively!
You. the people from the shore.
people from the mountains excessively.
could you merely come here this manner!
Visit me merely one time once more.
the flowering. blossoming tree!
I’ll remember this all my life. | Noong ako’y muraan
Sanggol na sanggol dad lang
Karga dad SA kandungan
Inuugoy SA duyan
Sa kagagawang duyan
Hinehele ni Nanay
Hindi n’ya iniiwan
Sapo n’ya SA kandungan
O kay gandang nagdaan!
Muli sanang mahimlay
Sa banayad sodium duyan
Nang tunay kong mamasdan
Paglaki kong kariktan
Kayong taga-baybayan
Maging taga-burulan
Kung maaring puntahan
Pasyalan at pagmasdan
Punong namumukadkad
Alaala kailanman! |
But there is besides the obedient kid who has his of import undertaking in the whole of the household work: observation that the merchandises in the field will non be destroyed by the wild animate beings. Ambahan 13|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| The ground why I am here.
walking along hills and valleies.
because Mother has told me
and my Father he merely said:
“Better go and have a expression.
at the field we have prepared.
Monkeies might be eating at that place
and the hogs destructing workss. ”
So I went and had a expression
at the field we have prepared.
But no monkeys eating at that place.
and no hogs destructing workss.
However. what I did see.
was a bird. still instead little.
sitting on the field we have.
at the boundary lines of the field.
Possibly one twenty-four hours it’ll be at that place.
when the rice is mature and just. | Sanhi Po nanogram paglakad
SA kabundukan
Ang bilin Po Ni Inang
Kay Ama’y kawikaan:
“Pumar’on iho’t tingnan
Kaingin nating hawan
Baka matsi’y lamunan
Baboy ay mag-arumbang”
Akin nang pinuntahan
Kaingin nating hawan
Matsin ay wala naman
Ni baboy na ligaw adult male
Anu’t aking namasdan
Merong ibong ‘liitan
Sa kainging hinawan
Sa gilid na taniman
Baka bukas nandiyan
Pagdatal nanogram anihan! |
Children. nevertheless. are the same everyplace. Frolicing around with their playfellows. they produce a deafening noise. frequently to the desperation of their parents. Ambahan 15|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Sure. the childs they are non bad.
but. say. who would non acquire huffy!
When from forenoon until dark
all this noise. right at your side.
and those battles on top of that! | Kahit bata’y mabait
Sinong di maiinis
Buong araw at gabi
Iritan d’ya’t kagalit
Awayan d’yan SA inggit! |

Ambahan: Adolescence
The passage from the dependent kid into the self-sufficing immature adult male or adult female is non marked by induction ceremonials or initiation rites. In some things. kids are given independency at an early age. In other things. they continue to move dependently. Ambahan 27|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Mother carried me around.
Father ever at my side.
I. the babe. was still little:
merely a small kid I was.
Traveling to the field to work.
Father led me by the manus.
Even talking simple words
as a baby I did non cognize.
But now everything has changed.
The little babe has grown up.
Now the babe understands
all the words that Father speaks.
Everything that female parent says.
Even when I’m walking far.
when I travel far off
and it becomes unsafe
I’ll return instantly. | Kinakalong ni Nanay
Kinakandong ni Tatay
Sadya stab kamusmusan
Tunay akong paslit lang
Hangang sa kaingin adult male
‘Sinasama Ni Tatay
Kahit pa utal-utal
Sanggol na walang muwang
Ngunit nang magka-minsan
Lumaki’t magkagulang
Akin namang nalaman
Kay Tatay. kawikaan
Kay Nanay. kasabihan
Malayo mang lakaran
Saan adult male Air National Guard abutan
Kung kasam-an Air National Guard datnan
Sila lang Air National Guard uwian! |
Then the twenty-four hours comes when adolescence ends. The parents know now that there is
non much hope that the immature people will make things the manner the parents want them to make. The immature adult male goes his manner. and cipher can direct him any longer. Ambahan 30|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Says the lobster in the brook:
Even if you place a dike.
I will leap it high and orderly! | Sabi nanogram hipong sapa:
Kahit minute adult male bakuran
May lusot. paraan dad! |
The character of the child is fixed now. Even if there are traits the parents do non wish. these traits can no longer be changed. Wherever he is. the immature grownup will act in his accustomed mode and will non alter his attitudes because of others. Ambahan 31|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Pigeon. with a sawed-off tail.
even there across the hills.
you won’t be a nightingale! | Hoy. ibong Balud-balod
Libanin minute ma’y bundok
Pungos dad rin ‘yang buntot! |

Ambahan: Courtship
Many pages of sweet-flowing love affairs have been written about wooing. but the Mangyans create their ain by utilizing the illustrations of the budding and blossoming workss and trees around them. Ambahan 38|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| The bamboo in Marigit
That I saw at first attack
Was merely germination and still little.
When I saw it yesterday.
It was standing house and thick
Ready now to construct a floor. | Kawayan sa Marigit
Pag tanaw KO. palapit
Labong dad siyang kay liit
Nang daanan KO pabalik
Siksikan mga tinik
Mainam nang pang-sahig! |

Ambahan 39|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| The thenar surrounding my field
Back when it was really little
My attending did non name.
But now that it’s fully-grown
and has shed its sere foliages.
I will reap it so fresh
and weave me a basket carnival.
That I can convey everyplace. | Buli SA may kaingin
Noong s’ya pa’y musmusin
Hindi ko pinapansin
Nang gumulang. pagsapit
Tanggi ko Air National Guard lumain
Sariwa kong kukunin
Bayong kong lalalain
Lagi kong sasakbitin! |
A male child has his manner of converting a miss of his good purposes and intimate love. He is willing to give anything for his beloved. Ambahan 68|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| My sweetie. my love so beloved.
when I left. in coming here.
coming from my house and pace ;
all the rice that I have stored.
I have left it there behind.
because I hope here to happen
one more valued than my rice!
One to be my spouse nice
to the H2O. to the field.
a comrade on my trips.
and one who will portion my slumber! | O liyag. aking hirang
Kanina nang lumisan
Galing SA ‘king dingdingan
Palay na inanihan
Akin lang iniwanan
Hinangad kong katuwang
Di basta palay lamang
Sa lakad sa ilog adult male
Maging SA kaparangan
Kaakbay KO saan adult male
Kaabay SA higaan! |

Ambahan: Home
To give a sample of all the assorted facets of the place life within a Mangyan colony would be following to impossible. However. an effort to pull a general lineation will be undertaken here. Two great subjects can be considered of importance in the life-cycle of a Mangyan: 1 ) His battle for life in and around his house. to maintain hungriness and sickness off ; and. 2 ) His incredible ability to loosen up. be happy and unconcerned. frequently by get awaying from his immediate milieus. What does a Mangyan place expression like? His house is non every bit of import as a house is to his countrymen of modern civilization. A Mangyan will be the first to acknowledge that his house is of hapless building and merely a impermanent home. Ambahan 102|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| This the forest Mangyan said:
“What I have to state you. sir.
I’ve been believing of for long:
Your being is non bad
In the Lowlandss where you live.
There the houses that you have
Are built with beams of the best
Like your floors all made of wood.
But we to the mountains born
Who have lived here for so long.
Our houses are non like that.
Our floor is of bamboo built.
Our roof made of cogon grass.
All of it is tied with vines.
But to that I have to add.
Don’t forget that we can populate
Very near the H2O beginning
Where the birds all come to imbibe.
A cool. fly-by-night topographic point to be. ”| Sabi nanogram isang Mangyan:
Ang wika ko’y pakinggan
Ito ngang kaisipan—
Mabuti Air National Guard ‘yong lagay
Ikaw. taga-kapatagan
Kaya taga-baybayan
Tabla ay ilang-ilang
Nagsahig nang mainam
Kaming taga-burulan
Kaya National Aeronautics and Space Administration burulan
aming kabihasnan
Sahig ay patpatan
Kugon lang ang bubungan
May taling baling-uway
Datapwa’t ‘to’y pakinggan
H’wag naman kalimutan
Ibon SA may igiban
Bukal itong inuman
Na kay lilim kung tingnan! |
After all. life is difficult and a Mangyan has to pass most of his clip eking out a subsistence for himself. so the house itself is of small importance. Ambahan 103|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Your status is rather good
and your house is beautiful.
The walls made of banban foliages.
still enforced with bamboo poles.
But we. populating outdoorss.
we. the mountains dwellers up.
if we did non hold to seek
for some nutrient to remain alive.
we could besides be so wise.
we could besides happen these ways!
But the lone thing we find.
is a sago thenar for nutrient! | Dampa mo’y kainaman
Bahay n’yo pong gandahan
May dingding na banban
Patukurang kawayan
Kaming National Aeronautics and Space Administration bakuran
Kaming taga-burulan
Di dapat paghanapan
Di dapat panghinaan
Wala niff karupukan
Di dapat manghinayang
Dahil masisilayan
Yaong buling gandahan! |
Even if the building is nice and strong. the twenty-four hours will come that the house will be torn apart by the rending blasts of air current. Ambahan 105|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Climbing vine with the long foliages.
foliages symmetrical and all right.
how really nice looks your root!
But. they say. you’ll be blown down
by the storm from the shore! | Hoy. uway na lambaan
Malamba Air National Guard dahon adult male
Ang puno’y kainaman—
Kung nasa daraanan
Bagyo’y galing ‘patagan! |
Ambahan: Problems
But at place. life is non ever every bit pleasant as the Manygans would wish it to be. There are dark yearss when the hereafter doesn’t look really bright. These dark yearss have to be overcome. Ambahan 113|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Balkawi. my mounting vine.
You’re non happy in that topographic point
Your all right foliages are rending at that place
And your hapless root creaks and calls.
I have to replant you now
In a topographic point where you will boom
Free from rain and puffy air currents. | Hoy. punong Balkawihan
Pangit ang tinubuan
Dahon mo’y nangalagas
Puno mo’y langitngitan
Muling itanim sodiums lang
Sa payapang hanginan
Sa walang daluyungan! |
There are the domestic misinterpretations that might originate ; the simple accidents that might go on. Ambahan 115|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Sticks from the balanti tree
If you cut them decently
From the deepness they will echo.
But if cut improperly
All you get is atrocious noise. | Kalutang kong Balanti
Kung timbang iyang yari
Taginting ay mabini
Kung tabtab mali-mali
Sintunadong matindi! |
There is no ground. nevertheless. to be as disquieted about a domestic misinterpretation or a simple accident as about a great catastrophe. Ambahan 117|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| What is the affair with you
that you are so much disturbance?
Like the celestial spheres coming down.
as if the whole sky collapsed!
Even rain will halt some twenty-four hours.
but rain doesn’t own a house!
A storm will non last all clip.
but storm has no topographic point like you!
Are you non a human? Man?
Doesn’t adult male ever go back
to his brooding topographic point. his place? | Bakit Ka nagkaganyan?
Ang ulo mo’y kay init
Bagsak Air National Guard kalangitan
Parang bayang guhuan
Pagtila nitong ulan
Ula’y walang tahanan
Hihinto Air National Guard ampiyasan
Hangi’y walang uwian
Di ba’t Taoist Ka naman
Di ba’t may babalikan
Sa kawayang daluyan! |

Ambahan: Illness
Sickness is ineluctable in human life. A individual who is sick can easy be recognized. Sometimes. whatever is done. all intervention seems to be in vain. But there is ever a intervention that’s been forgotten. Ambahan 131|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| This my job. my concern.
I had called the physicians all.
had it treated often
but my concern didn’t go.
Like the storm non quieting down.
like the rain that doesn’t halt
it was even acquiring worse:
my caput about checking up.
But the concluding medical specialty.
why did I non believe of it?
We must love each other more.
Then the job will be gone.
carried along by the air current.
covered by the wood trees.
and we will be sad no more. | Itong ulong makirot
Dinalit na’t ginamot
Niritwal na sa bulong
Ayaw niff huminahon
Parang bagyong inikot
Laging unang lagunot
Lalo itong tumibok
Sa bunbunan paloob
Datapwa’t iyang gamot
Ikaw. SA ‘king pagsukot
Ay karamay kong irog!
Huhupa na ang kirot
Sa hangin ipasaklot
Sa gubat ipataklob
Lalaho na ang lungkot! |
A serious status might develop. The usual interventions are of small aid. Ambahan 132|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Says Yumay. when experiencing ailment:
Daog. I am naming you.
I am coming all the manner
to see your house. Daog.
I would wish to inquire from you.
if you could use your humor.
hold me treated with your appeals.
The chief ground for all this:
my job. my concern was
treated seven times in vain.
still the illness doesn’t go!
I am disquieted and I think
that this illness will ensue
eventually into my decease. | Panawagan ni Yumay
Si Daog tawag tawag
Pakay niya SA lakad
Si Daog SA may dampa
Ako nawa’y tulungan
Sa bulong mong malakas
Sa mabisa mong dasal
Kaya nga nagkaganyan
Masakit Air National Guard uluhan
Pito mang patas-unan
Kirot pa’y palagian
Huwag Sana. h’wag naman
Sakit consuming hantungan
Tiyak na kamatayan! |
Why don’t the interventions work? Possibly all the demands of offerings to the liquors were non decently fulfilled. Ambahan 133|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Says the spirit of the spring:
What has been your offering?
Softly cooked rice. there was none.
Not a poulet. even one!
Merely some fruits from a tree!
What else could the reply be
but rains and a hurricane
hitting house and pace once more.
What are you traveling to make?
Incantation might assist you
or a visionary and his humor!
Possibly he can work out your instance
and forestall farther shame.
Says the 1 responsible:
You. dear spirit of the well.
Please. make conceal your anger!
It’s my mistake. I do confess.
I’ll bring the best from my floor
that you will kick no more. | Wika ng lamang-lupa
Apo Ilog nagbanta:
Handog na kani’y wala
Ni manok na ‘hinanda
Bungang-kahoy lamang Ba
Ambo’y umampiyas National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Hangin ay hagunot sodiums
Sa kabila ng dampa
Anong ibibigay dad
Bibigkas ng dasal Ba?
Uusal ng dalit hour angle
Ganyang magmatigas Ka
Hanggang katapusan dad!
Sumagot ang sinama:
Kayo. Poon ng sapa
H’wag kapootan nawa
Alay namin. dulog sodium
Sa sahig nagmumula
Sa sumpa po’y iadya! |

Ambahan: Food and work
Obtaining nutrient keeps the Mangyans busy for most of the twelvemonth: selecting and fixing the field ; seeding the carefully unbroken seed ; weeding and cleaning the workss ; reaping the most cherished nutrient. cotton-white mountain rice. Unfortunately. an ideal crop depends on an exact sum of Sun. air current and rain. Often though. an extended drouth. a awful typhoon or drawn-out monsoon rains consequence the opposite consequence. adversity and scarceness of nutrient. It is hence. no admiration that the Mangyans worry about their harvests a great trade. Rice is a nutrient the Mangyans enjoy. After they have harvested their rice. it seems that there will ne’er come an terminal to their supplies. But. before they realize it. gone is all their hope and felicity. Ambahan 136|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| This sort of rice. Kabasag.
When I saw for the first clip.
The chaffs were heavy with grain.
When I returned and looked once more.
Empty and level were the caputs! | Ang palay kong Kabasag
Nang minsan kong namatyag
Uhay ay sangkatutak
Nang balikan ko’t tingnan
Uhay ay mangahungkag! |

Ambahan 137|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| The small black bird Sawi.
So hereabouts its was told.
Had a tail long and reasonably.
But the bird when it grew large.
Tail. alas. shorter it grew.
Struck by lightning as storm blew. | Ibong si Sawi-sawi
Noon dad adult male ang huni
Buntot. mahabang dili
Subalit nang lumaki
Buntot ko ay umiksi
Kinidlat. binuhawi! |
Whether one likes it or non. it is necessary to work hard in order to maintain his tummy filled. He has to work hard even if he has the aid of the liquors. Ambahan 139|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Our good and cherished dirt:
Would it be as beautiful
if we did non work and labor?
Very shortly it would be waste. | Ating lupang payapa
Paano dad gaganda
Kung di tayo gumawa
Dagli ‘yang mawawala! |

Ambahan: Travel
As a alleviation from his battle for life. the Mangyan sometimes goes going. The minute will come when the Mangyan can non be kept trussed any longer to his house and the day-to-day jobs. He has to travel. whether it is opportune or non. The adult female. nevertheless. is non every bit fortunate as the adult male ; she is tied to her place.
particularly when her kids are still little. In malice of that. she would besides wish to travel out one time in a piece. The parents should be. hence. understanding and sensible. Ambahan 164|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| This journey that I must make.
State me delight what’s incorrect with it.
And delight explicate how. so.
Father and mother dearest!
But so if there’s nil incorrect.
Then why call on the carpet me for so long? | Iring aking pagpasyal
Kung Mali Po Air National Guard asal
Ako ay kagalitan
O Tatay ko. O Inay
Ngunit kung kawastuhan
H’wag sanang magtungayaw? |
The undermentioned ambahan is a particular spot of advice to those with the unpleasant tinea tegument disease. Ambahan 166|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Little bird. Balinayaw.
When the Sun is melting fast.
Better non to walk outside.
For your colourss will stand out
On the leafless Limpayaw! | Ay naku ibong Balaw
Kung pusyaw sodium Air National Guard araw
Huwag ka ngang galawgaw
Kulay mo ay lilitaw
Sa panot na Limpayaw! |
Merely as the velocity of those who travel differs. so the character besides differs. Ambahan 178|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Take my bird. the bidlawan.
whistling loud and winging far.
still he will ever come back
to the house wherein we dwell.
But the bird alipasang
whistling loud and winging far.
he will non come back once more
to the house wherein we dwell. | Ibong kong Si Bidlawan
Sakaling ngang liparan
Babalik dad rin iyan
Sa ‘ming dampang pugaran
Ang ibong layang-layang
Kung puma-ilanglang
Wala na pong balikan
Sa pugad na tahanan! |

Ambahan: Cordial reception and friendly relationship
When a traveller arrives at a house he wont be afraid that he may non be welcome. Cordial reception is considered the highest of virtuousnesss among the Mangyans. Ambahan 181|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| My beloved friend. be welcome here!
Where. perchance. did you come from?
From the coast ebbing low.
from the bubbling H2O spring?
If from the H2O beginning up.
allow us speak a minute here.
in a happy. friendly manner.
Even whoever you are.
we like to be at your side. | Katoto kong matalik
Saan ka ba nanggaling
Sa baybayin knock gilid
Nasunson Ba nanogram Batis
Kung sa bukal nanogram tubig
Halina at magniig
Sa kwentuhan mong ibig
Di-kilala ma’t batid
Makapiling ka’y lirip! |
Siting together on the balcony in the soft moonshine. the Mangyan feel
inspired. Friendship is great! Ambahan 198|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Expression! The Moon so full and bright.
reflecting in forepart of the house!
How can you explicate to me.
that the beams are soft and cool?
If a adult male like us he were.
I would keep him by the manus!
Seize the hair to maintain him back!
Grasp the apparels to do him remain!
But how could I pull off that!
It is the Moon in the sky!
The full Moon reflecting so bright.
traveling down beyond the hills.
vanishing from the field.
out of sight behind the stones. | Kay liwanag nanogram buwan
Sa balkunahe’y sinag
Paano pecking ganyak
Luningning ay busilak
Kung Taoist s’yang katulad
Pipigilan kong tiyak
Sa buhok. siya’y hawak
Siguro sa damit adult male
Pa’no mapipigilan
May buwang nakasinag
Bituing kumikislap
May bundok kinublihan
May hinamugang patag
May tuktok na pinugad. |
The visitant will be place once more. but the memory of his good friends will stay everlastingly. Ambahan 205|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| You. my friends. dearest of all.
thought of you makes me sad.
Rivers deep are in between.
woods vast maintain us apart.
But thought of you with love.
as if you are here nearby
standing. sitting at my side. | Lugod kong kaibigan
Kung kita’y pag-isipan
May ilog SA pagitan
May gubat SA harapan
Ngunit kung pagbulayan
Parang nasa tabihan
Kapiling SA kandungan. |

Ambahan: Marriage
Although the wooing period has a varied set of regulations and ceremonies. the matrimony itself is every bit simple as possible. After the consent of the parents has been obtained. the unceremonious first slumber of both the partners together is considered as marriage itself. In the ambahan literature. a major portion revolves around the perennial subject of married life and all its branchings. After many old ages of life together. does the hubby still retrieve his promise that he gave as an ardent lover? When troubles arise. the Mangyans try to smooth them out themselves. Ambahan 210|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| If the ties you use at place
Become weak and tend to interrupt.
You should be the one to repair.
The one to reconstruct their strength. | Panali ma’y marupok
Uway iyan na gapok
Ikaw itong susubok
Magtitibay nang lubos! |
The undermentioned advice is worthwhile to retrieve!
Ambahan 231|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Even with inharmoniousness
and a wrangle now and so.
No ground to divide.
Try to understand it foremost! | Kahit may kaguluhan
May tampuha’t alitan
Di dapat talikuran
Unawain mo naman! |
Separating for a longer period of clip is sad for the twosome.
Ambahan 234|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| My beloved fragrant herb. my married woman.
it is true. we have to portion.
on this twenty-four hours and on this hr.
If united we remain
and our bond is strong and pure.
you and I. far as we are.
it’s like keeping custodies once more.
it’s like sitting side by side. | Kab’yak kong halimuyak
Kita ma’y magkawalay
Ngayon at lumaon adult male
Kung buklod ay matibay
Maayos Air National Guard samahan
Ikaw National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency at ako adult male
Magkahawak nanogram kamay
Wari’y nasa kandungan! |

Ambahan: Old age
Sharing their love. the happy twosome grows old together.
Old age in Mangyan society is non given particular position and particular privileges. Equally long as anyone is able to maintain up. he is expected to take portion in day-to-day work. It is. hence. non surprising to see the old and lame people working side by side with the younger coevalss in the rice Fieldss. However. the irrevokable progress of clip is felt by the senior coevals. It is something that can’t be changed. Ambahan 235|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| It’s a fact we all know.
a truth wherever we go:
the Sun in the afternoon
will be puting really shortly. | Di ba’t totoo naman
Katunayan saan adult male
Araw sa kataasan
Ay lulubog rin naman. |
Among themselves. the older coevals talk about the clip when they will no longer be together. Will there still come another twenty-four hours after this dark? Ambahan 237|
Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| At this hr of the dark dark
we are still together now
on the woven sleeping-mat.
But when the Sun rises shortly.
and the stars become detached.
our bond might interrupt up excessively.
When we’ll of all time meet once more.
it is non with mortal eyes.
but the eye-sight of the psyche. | Sa sandaling karimlan
Kahit kita magtipan
Sa banig sodium higaan
Pagsikat nitong araw
Talang maghihiwalay ;
Buklod nati’y bibigay ;
Pagkikita’y daratal
Paningi’y mapawi adult male
May bagong kaanyuan. |
The idea of decease is softly accepted by a Mangyan. It is non the atrocious and atrocious event that is feared so much by the lowland Christians. For a Mangyan. decease is portion of the life rhythm of every human being ; it is looked upon as something that will convey a definite alteration in life. largely for the better. non for the worst. Particularly when the Mangyan gets old. he likes to believe of decease as the minute that will convey him back once more to his beloved who went in front of him. Ambahan 242|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Says the adult male. already old.
thought of life after decease:
When I leave. it will be nice.
I will whistle. I will shout
on the highest mountain extremums.
Yes. one twenty-four hours I will be glad ;
I will see my married woman once more!
Many things we’ll have to state!
Then I won’t want to come back. | Wika nanogram isang Mangyan
Isip Air National Guard kamatayan
Kung yayao’t papanaw
Sipol akong hihiyaw
Sa landas sa ‘bundukan
Kung dumatal Air National Guard asam
Pagtagpo natin hirang
Sa usal ay puspusan
Papanaw nang tuluyan|

Ambahan: Death
When physical life comes to an terminal. the psyche departs for another topographic point. The minute of deceasing. this remarkable experience. is vividly remembered afterwards by the psyche. particularly if decease came during an agonising circumstance. Ambahan 246|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Says the psyche memory:
Merely a piece ago at place.
in the house I used to remain.
My organic structure was truly bad.
lying sickly on the mat.
though non ready yet to travel.
Scared to decease I truly was!
I was traveling to the right
and to go forth. back and Forth!
So baffled I was that clip!
Now. my organic structure laid at remainder.
eventually I took a bath
in the Waterss for the psyche.
I am get downing on my manner
to the topographic point my male parent went.
and where Mother joined him. excessively. | Taghoy nanogram kaluluwa:
Kanina nang lumisan
Sa dampa kong tahanan
Katawan ko’y naghihirap
Sa banig sodium higaan
Di dad lumilisan
Balisang nagpaalam
Pa-biling-biling naman
Pakaliwa’t pakanan
Sige na nga kung ganyan
Ako na ay lilisan
Liligo sa hugasan
Sa tubig dalisayan
Sa bago kong hantungan
Sa tabihan Ni Amang
Kapiling na si Inang! |
Tragic. besides is the Mangyan who died out of wretchedness and humiliation because of the adversity he had to cover with! We do non cognize what his jobs were or who caused them. but that he had some is clear from his account! Ambahan 251|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| These are the words of the psyche:
Who would eventually non kick!
My house on the mountain incline
in the darkness of the dark.
hurricanes were ululating loud.
When the Sun was in the sky.
the shower came floging down!
All the southern typhoon air currents.
all the north-western storms.
my house they were hitting hard!
That was precisely the instance.
No admiration I left the topographic point! | Hinagpis ng kalul’wa:
Sinong di masasaktan
Bahay ko sa tarikan
Kung gabi at karimlan
Ang hangin ay bugsuan
Kung araw ay sikatan
Ambon ay ampiyasan
Saklot ng habagat adult male
Pispis nga ng amihan
Tutok doo’t bugsuan
Kang ganyan rin National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency lamang
Sa dampa na’y lilisan|
All this information comes from the kingdom of the dead. furnished by the asleep themselves! Communicating with the psyches or liquors of the dead is nil extraordinary for the Mangyans. These are those individuals who possess the power to strike up a conversation with the liquors by agencies of a medium or daniw. The conversation resembles a seance among mediums. The Mangyan who grieves about the decease of a beloved one likes to avail himself of the services of a daniw in order to see if the psyche of the deceased can non be convinced to come back and fall in his earthly organic structure once more. Positive consequences are said to be known. but they are non recorded in the ambahan poetry. The ambahan samples available merely relate the failure of the daniw and the decision of the psyche to go on his class in the other life. Ambahan 252|

Hanunuo-Mangyan| English| Filipino|
| Says the seer’s medium:
You. soul. can you state me delight.
why is it you were so frightened.
that clip when you left the house?
Wasn’t a spirit from the forests?
If so. I took attention of that
through my supplications really strong
and the conjurations excessively!
Your frights should hold disappeared.
since the Evil 1 is gone.
All the more. it’s long ago
that I caged him through my strength. | Ang wika nitong Daniw: Kalul’wa. barge sabihin
Takot ka Ba at bakit?
Sa tahana’y umalis
Kung malignong gubatin
Ligtas nating talunin
Sa lakas ng dalangin
Sa tindi nanogram humigmig
Tuloy kang manahimik
Maligno’y gagapusin
Ngayon at midday mandin
Sa dunong bibihagin! |

Mangyan groups

Ethnographic map of Mindoro
There are around 300 million autochthonal peoples in the universe. In the Philippines. of the jutting population of 94 million in 2010. about 15 % belong to autochthonal groups. [ AusAID ] Mindoro is the 7th largest island in the Philippines. with an country of 10. 224 square kilometres and two states – Oriental and Occidental. Of the entire population of one million. the autochthonal population is estimated at 100. 000. Mangyan is the corporate name for the eight autochthonal groups populating in Mindoro. each with its ain name. linguistic communication. and set of imposts: * Iraya

* Alangan
* Tadyawan
* Tau-buid
* Bangon
* Buhid
* Hanunuo
* Ratagnon


An Iraya-Mangyan household [ Source: Mangyan Mission ]
The Iraya Mangyans live in the municipalities of Puerto Galera. San Teodoro and Baco in Oriental Mindoro but most are in Occidental Mindoro. peculiarly in the municipalities of Abra de Ilog. Paluan. Mamburao and Santa Cruz. Estel ( 1952 ) described the Iraya as holding curly or deep wavy hair and dark tegument but non every bit dark as that of the Negrito. During ancient times. the Iraya traditional garb was made of dry tree bark. pounded to do it level and soft. The adult females normally wore a blouse and a skirt and the work forces wore G-strings made of fabric. Today. nevertheless. the Iraya are dressed merely like the lowland people. Off-the-rack apparels are easier to happen than their traditional costume [ Uyan. 2002 ] . The Irayas are besides skilled in nito-weaving. Handicrafts such as jars. trays. home bases and cups of different sizes and design are being marketed to the Lowlanders. They subsist on rice. banana. sweet murphy. and other root harvests.


An Alangan-Mangyan adult female in traditional garb
The Alangan Mangyans live in the municipalities of Naujan. Baco. San Teodoro. and Victoria in Oriental Mindoro. and in the municipality of Sablayan in Occidental Mindoro. The name Alangan was derived from the name of a river and mountain inclines in the upper Alangan Valley [ Leykamm. 1979 ] . The adult females traditionally wear a skirt called lingeb. This is made of long strips of woven nito ( forest vines ) . and is wound around the venters. This is worn together with the G-string called abayen. The upper covering is called ulango. made from the foliage of the wild buri thenar. Sometimes a ruddy kerchief called limbutong is worn over the ulango. The work forces wear G-strings with peripheries in forepart. The Alangan Mangyans practise swidden agriculture. which consists of 11 phases. Two of them are the firebreak-making ( agait ) and the fallowing ( agpagamas ) . A fireguard is made so the fire will non travel
beyond the swidden site where the flora is thoroughly dry and ready for firing. Two old ages after uncluttering. cultivation of the swidden is usually ceased and the site is allowed to return back to forest [ Quiaoit. 1997 ] . Betel nut mastication is besides noted among the Alangans. like all other Mangyan folk. This they chew with great ardor from forenoon to dark. stating that they don’t experience hunger every bit long as they chew betel nut [ Leykamm. 1979 ] . Nonetheless. betel mastication has a societal dimension. Exchange of betel chaw ingredients signifies societal credence.


Tadyawan Mangyans in Oriental Mindoro [ Source: Mangyan Mission ] The Tadyawan Mangyans live in the municipalities of Naujan. Victoria. Socorro. Pola. Gloria. Pinamalayan. and Bansud. In the yesteryear. the adult females wore for their upper covering a ruddy fabric called paypay. which is wound around the chest. For their lower covering. they wrapped around the waist a white fabric called talapi. The work forces wore G-strings called abay. For their accoutrements. adult females wore colourful watchbands and necklaces made of beads. Today the adult females are seldom seen have oning their traditional garb. though some work forces still wear the abay. Like all other Mangyan folks. the Tadyawan depend on their “kaingin” farm for subsistence. Their staple nutrients are highland rice. banana. sweet murphy. and cocoyam. Some have besides planted fruit-bearing trees like rambotan. citrous fruit. and java in their kaingin.


A Tau-buid Mangyan in Occidental Mindoro [ Source: Overseas Missionary Fellowship ] The Tau-buids are known as pipe tobacco users and even kids begin smoking at a immature age. Standard frock for work forces and adult females is the loin fabric. In some countries near to the Lowlandss. adult females wrap a knee-length fabric around their bark bra-string and work forces wear cloth alternatively of bark. Bark fabric is worn by both work forces and adult females in the inside and is besides used for caput sets. women’s chest screens. and covers. Cloth is made by pull outing. buffeting and drying the interior bark of several trees [ Pennoyer. 1979 ] . The Tau-buid Mangyans live in the municipalities of Socorro. Pinamalayan and Gloria. but
largely in Occidental Mindoro.


A Bangon-Mangyan senior [ Source: Mangyan Mission ]
The Bangon Mangyans live along the Bongabon river called Binagaw and the surrounding mountains in the municipalities of Bongabong. Bansud. and Gloria in Oriental Mindoro. The Bangon Mangyans have their ain civilization. linguistic communication and composing system. different to the other folks in Oriental Mindoro. and asserted they be considered the 7th major folk – non a sub-tribe of the Tau-buid. In a March 28. 1996 meeting with Buhid Mangyans in Ogom Liguma. they decided to accept the word Bangon for their folk.


A Buhid-Mangyan adult female [ Source: Mangyan Mission ]
The Buhids are known as pot shapers. Other Mangyan fol