Philippine Literature Essay

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Philippine Literature Essay

Literature 1. Literature is the art of written plants. and is non bound to published beginnings. The word literature means “acquaintance with letters” . The two most basic written literary classs include fiction and non fiction. a ) Etymology- late 14c. . from L. lit ( T ) eratura “learning. composing. grammar. ” originally “writing formed with letters. ” from lit ( T ) epoch “letter. ” Originally “book learning” ( it replaced O. E. boccr?

foot ) . the significance “literary production or work” is foremost authenticated 1779 in Johnson’s “Lives of the English Poets” ( he didn’t include this definition in his lexicon. nevertheless ) ; that of “body of Hagiographas from a period or people” is foremost recorded 1812. B ) Types: * An heroic poem is a drawn-out narrative verse form. normally refering a serious topic incorporating inside informations of heroic workss and events important to a civilization or state. * Lyric poesy is a signifier of poesy that expresses personal and emotional feelings.

In the ancient universe. lyric verse forms were meant to be played to the lyre. Lyric verse forms do non hold to rime. and today do non necessitate to be set to music or a round. * Drama is the specific manner of fiction represented in public presentation. The term comes from a Grecian word significance “action” . which is derived from “to do” . * Romance or knightly love affair is a manner of heroic prose and poetry narrative that was popular in the blue circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

* Satire is chiefly a literary genre or signifier. although in pattern it can besides be found in the in writing and executing humanistic disciplines in which frailties. follies. maltreatments. and defects are held up to roast. ideally with the purpose of dishonoring persons. and society itself. into betterment. * Comedy is any humourous discourse intended to divert. in telecasting. movie. and stand-up comedy. * Tragedy is a signifier of art based on human agony that offers its audience pleasance. 2. Literary Forms based on Philippine Historical Period a ) Ancient Literature of Folk Literature.

Compared to other Southeast Asiatic states. the Philippines has really few artefacts that show grounds of composing. It is known that the Filipinos transferred information by word of oral cavity so it is non a surprise to cognize that literacy merely became widespread in 1571 when the Spaniards came to the Philippines. But the early book used by the Filipinos called Baybayin or Alibata became widespread in Luzon. The Spaniards recorded that people in Manila and other topographic points wrote on bamboo or on specially prepared thenar foliages. utilizing knives and styli.

They used the ancient Tagalog book which had 17 basic symbols. three of which were the vowels a/e. i. and o/u. Each basic consonantal symbol had the inherent a sound: Ka. ga. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Ta. district attorney. sodium. pa. Ba. mom. ya. La. Washington. SA. and hour angle. A diacritical grade. called kudlit. modified the sound of the symbol into different vowel sounds. The kudlit could be a point. a short line. or even an arrowhead. When placed above the symbol. it changed the built-in sound of the symbol from a/e to i ; placed below. the sound became o/u.

Therefore a ba/be with a kudlit placed above became a Bi ; if the kudlit was placed below. the symbol became a bo/bu. Owing to the plants of our ain archeologists. ethnologists and anthropologists. we are able to cognize more and better justice information about Philippine pre-colonial times set against a majority of stuff about early Filipinos as recorded by Spanish. Chinese. Arabic and other chroniclers of the past. Pre-colonial dwellers of our islands showcase the Philippines’ rich yesteryear through their common people expressions. common people vocals. common people narrations and autochthonal rites and mimetic dances.

The most seminal of these folk expressions is the conundrum which is tigmo in Cebuano. bugtong in Tagalog. paktakon in Ilonggo and patototdon in Bicol. There are besides proverbs or apothegms that express norms or codifications of behaviour. community beliefs or values by offering nuggets of wisdom in short. riming poetry. The common people vocal. is a signifier of common people words which expresses the hopes and aspirations. the people’s lifestyles every bit good as their loves. These are frequently insistent and heavy. didactic and naif as in the children’s vocals or Ida-ida ( Maguindanao ) . tulang pambata ( Tagalog ) or cansiones para abbing ( Ibanag ) .

A few illustrations are the lullabyes or Ili-ili ( Ilonggo ) ; love vocals like the panawagon and balitao ( Ilonggo ) ; harana or divertimento ( Cebuano ) ; the bayok ( Maranao ) ; the seven-syllable per line verse form. ambahan of the Mangyans that are about human relationships. societal amusement and besides serve as tools for learning the immature ; work vocals that depict the support of the people frequently sung to travel with the motion of workers such as the kalusan ( Ivatan ) . soliranin ( Tagalog rowing vocal ) . the mambayu. a Kalinga rice-pounding vocal. and the verbal jousts/games like the duplo popular during aftermaths.

The common people narrations. such as heroic poems and common people narratives are varied. alien and charming. They were created to explicate the phenomena of the universe long earlier scientific discipline came to be known. They explain how the universe was created. how certain animate beings possess certain features. why some topographic points have waterfalls. vents. mountains. vegetations or zoologies and. in the instance of fables. the beginnings of things. Fabrications are about animate beings and these learn moral lessons. The heroic poems come in assorted names: Guman ( Subanon ) ; Darangen ( Maranao ) ; Hudhud ( Ifugao ) ; and Ulahingan ( Manobo ) .

These heroic poems revolve around supernatural events or heroic workss and they embody or validate the beliefs and imposts and ideals of a community. They are performed during banquets and particular occasions such as crops. nuptialss or funerals by melody pipes. Examples of these heroic poems are the Lam-ang ( Ilocano ) ; Hinilawod ( Sulod ) ; Kudaman ( Palawan ) ; Darangen ( Maranao ) ; Ulahingan ( Livunganen-Arumanen Manobo ) ; Mangovayt Buhong na Langit ( The Maiden of the Buhong Sky from Tuwaang–Manobo ) ; Ag Tobig neg Keboklagan ( Subanon ) ; and Tudbulol ( T’boli ) .

B ) Filipino Literature under Spanish Period The reaching of the Spaniards in 1565 brought Spanish civilization and linguistic communication. The Spanish vanquishers. regulating from Mexico for the Crown of Spain. established a rigorous category system that was based on race and shortly imposed Roman Catholicism on the native population. While it is true that Spain subjugated the Philippines for more everyday grounds. this former European power contributed much in the defining and recording of our literature.

Religion and establishments that represented European civilisation enriched the linguistic communications in the Lowlandss. introduced theatre which we would come to cognize as komedya. the sinakulo. the sarswela. the playlets and the play. The indigens. called indio. by and large were non taught Spanish. but the bilingual persons. notably poet-translator Gaspar Aquino de Belen. produced devotional poesy written in the Roman book in the Tagalog linguistic communication. Literature from this period may be classified as spiritual prose and poesy and secular prose and poesy.

Religious wordss written by ladino poets or those versed in both Spanish and Tagalog were included in early catechism and were used to learn Filipinos the Spanish linguistic communication. Another type of spiritual wordss is the brooding poetry like the dalit appended to novenas and catechisms. It has no fixed meter nor rhyme strategy although a figure are written in octo-syllabic quatrains and have a solemn tone and religious capable affair. Secular plants appeared aboard historical and economic alterations. the outgrowth of an deluxe category and the in-between category who could avail of a European instruction.

This Filipino elite could now read printed plants that used to be the sole sphere of the missionaries. The most noteworthy of the secular wordss followed the conventions of a romantic tradition: the languishing but loyal lover. the elusive. frequently hardhearted beloved. the rival. The taking poets were Jose Corazon de Jesus ( Huseng Sisiw ) and Francisco Balagtas. Some secular poets who wrote in this same tradition were Leona Florentino. Jacinto Kawili. Isabelo de los Reyes and Rafael Gandioco. Another popular type of secular poesy is the metrical love affair. the awit and korido in Tagalog.

The awit is set in dodecasyllabic quatrains while the korido is in octosyllabic quatrains. An illustration of this is the Ibong Adarna ( Adarna Bird ) . There are legion metrical love affairs in Tagalog. Bicol. Ilonggo. Pampango. Ilocano and in Pangasinan. The awit as a popular poetic genre reached new highs in Balagtas’s Florante at Laura ( ca. 1838-1861 ) . the most celebrated of the country’s metrical love affairs. Again. the air currents of alteration began to blow in 19th century Philippines. Filipino intellectuals educated in Europe called ilustrados began to compose about the downside of colonisation.

This. coupled with the simmering calls for reforms by the multitudes inspired a formidable force of authors like Jose Rizal. Marcelo H. del Pilar. Mariano Ponce. Emilio Jacinto and Andres Bonifacio. This led to the formation of the Propaganda Movement where prose works such as the political essays and Rizal’s two political novels. Noli Me Tangere and the El filibusterismo helped usher in the Filipino revolution ensuing in the ruin of the Spanish government. and. at the same clip planted the seeds of a national consciousness among Filipinos.

But before Rizal’s political novels came. the fresh Ninay ( 1885 ) by Pedro Paterno. which was mostly cultural and is considered the first Filipino novel. Although Paterno’s Ninay gave drift to other novelists like Jesus Balmori and Antonio M. Abad to go on composing in Spanish. their attempts did non flourish. Other Filipino authors published the essay and short fiction in Spanish in La Vanguardia. El Debate. Renacimiento Filipino. and Nueva Era. The more noteworthy litterateurs and fictionists were Claro M.

Recto. Teodoro M. Kalaw. Epifanio de los Reyes. Vicente Sotto. Trinidad Pardo de Tavera. Rafael Palma. Enrique Laygo ( Caretas or Masks. 1925 ) and Balmori who mastered the prosa romantica or romantic prose. degree Celsius ) Contemporary Literary Forms * Poetry is a signifier of literary art in which linguistic communication is used for its aesthetic and redolent qualities in add-on to. or in stead of. its evident significance. * A novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. * Drama is the specific manner of fiction represented in public presentation.

[ 1 ] The term comes from a Grecian word significance “action” . which is derived from “to do” . * A short narrative is a work of fiction that is normally written in prose. frequently in narrative format. * A novelette is a written. fictional. prose narrative longer than a novella but shorter than a novel. 3. Assorted Geographic Regions and Historical Periods and Literary Genre a ) Ilocos. Cagayan Valley. and Cordillera Administrative Regions Pre-colonial Iloko literature were composed of common people vocals. conundrums. Proverbs. Lamentationss called dung-aw. and heroic narratives in written or unwritten signifier.

Ancient Ilokano poets expressed themselves in common people and war vocals every bit good as the dallot. an improvized. versified and at times impromptu long verse form delivered in a sing-song mode. During the Spanish government. Iloko poesy was by and large patterned after Spanish theoretical accounts. In fact. the earliest known written Iloko verse forms were the love affairs translated from Spanish by Francisco Lopez. an Augustinian mendicant who. in 1621. published his ain Iloko interlingual rendition of the Doctrina Cristiana by Cardinal Bellarmine. the first book to be printed in Iloko.

A survey of Iloko poesy could be found in the Gramatica Ilokana. published in 1895. based on Lopez’s Arte de la Lengua Iloca. earlier published in 1627. but was likely written before 1606. Some Iloko authors recognition Pedro Bucaneg. who collaborated with Lopez in the interlingual rendition of the Doctrina into Iloko. for holding been the first known Ilokano poet. and as the “Father of Ilokano Poetry and Literature. ” Bucaneg. blind since childhood. authored the popular heroic poem known as “Biag ni Lam-ang” ( “Life of Lam-ang” ) written in the seventeenth century.

The earliest written signifier of the heroic poem verse form was given by Fr. Gerardo Blanco to Isabelo de los Reyes. who published it in El Ilocano from December 1889 to February 1890. with Spanish interlingual rendition in prose. and besides reprinted it in his El Folklore Filipino. under the rubric “Vida de Lam-ang. ” Iloko literature developed in many ways. During the eighteenth century. the missionaries used spiritual every bit good as secular literatures among other agencies to progress their mission of change overing the Ilokanos to Christianity.

The century besides saw the publication of spiritual plants like Fr. Jacinto Rivera’s Sumario de las Indulgencias in 1719 and the Pasion. a interlingual rendition of St. Vincent Ferrer’s discourses into Iloko by Fr. Antonio Mejia in 1845. The nineteenth century likewise saw the visual aspect of Leona Florentino. who has since been considered by some as the “National Poetess of the Philippines” . Her verse form which have survived. nevertheless. look to the modern reader as being excessively syrupy for comfort. excessively sentimental to the point of bathos. and utterly devoid of signifier.

Fr. Justo Claudio Fojas. an Ilokano secular priest who wrote novenas. prayer books. catechism. metrical love affairs. play. lifes. a Spanish grammar and an Iloko-Spanish lexicon. was Leona Florentino’s modern-day. Isabelo de los Reyes. Leona’s boy. himself wrote verse forms. narratives. folklore. surveies. and apparently endless spiritual every bit good as political articles. The accomplishment of both Claudio Fojas and de los Reyes is perchance more important than the critical reader of Iloko literature today is ready to acknowledge.

The comedia. otherwise known as the moro-moro. and the zarzuela were presented for the first clip in the Ilocos in the nineteenth century. The comedia. a extremely picturesque presentation of the wars between Christians and Muslims. and the zarzuela. an every bit picturesque word picture of what is at one time melodrama. comic-opera. and the skit endlessly preoccupied with the ageless subject of boy-meets-girl-who-always-live-happily-ever-after-seemingly-impossible-odds are still as popular today as they were when foremost staged in the Ilocos.

The comedia was scripted from the corridos like Principe Don Juan. Ari Esteban ken Reyna Hipolita. Doce Paris. Bernardo Carpio. Jaime del Prado. Marcelino Mena Crisologo helped popularise the zarzuela based on the civilization and tradition of the Ilokanos peculiarly those in Vigan. Ilocos Sur. So did Pascual Agcaoili Y Guerrero ( 1880-1958 ) of Ilocos Norte who wrote and staged “Daguiti Agpaspasukmon Basi. ” and Isaias R. Lazo ( 1887-1983 ) of San Vicente. Ilocos Sur who wrote comedia and zarzuela. The twelvemonth 1892 saw the printing for the first clip of the first Iloko novel. written by Fr.

Rufino Redondo. an Augustinian mendicant. titled “Matilde de Sinapangan. ” Another Iloko novel which was written before the terminal of the nineteenth century by one Don Quintin Alcid was “Ayat. Kaanonto Ngata? ” ( “Love. When Shall it Be? “ ) Arturo Centeno of Vigan. Ilocos Sur. besides wrote three novels titled “Apay a Di Mangasawa? ” ( “Why Doesn’t He Get Married? “ ) . “Dispensara” and “Padi a Puraw Wenno Naamo a Kibin” ( “A White Priest or a Good Guide” ) . The twentieth century is relatively more intense in literary activity.

Some of the literature in this period are “Biag ti Maysa a Lakay. Wenno Nakaam-ames a Bales” ( “Life of an Old Man. or a Dreadful Revenge” ) by Mariano Gaerlan ( 1909 ) ; “Uray Narigat no Paguimbagan” ( “Improvement Despite Obstacles” ) by Facundo Madriaga ( 1911 ) ; “Mining Wenno Ayat Ti Cararua” ( “Mining or Spiritual Love” ) by Marcelino Pena Crisologo ( 1914 ) ; “Nasam-it cognizance Narucbos National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Sabong dagiti Dardarepdep Ti Agbaniaga” ( “Sweet and Fresh Flower of a Traveller’s Dreams” ) by Marcos E. Millon ( 1921 ) ; “Sabsabong ken Lulua” ( “Flowers and Tears” ) by R. Respicio ( 1930 ) ; “Apay a Pinatayda Ni Naw Simon?

” ( “Why Did They Kill Don Simon? “ ) foremost known detective novel in Iloko by Leon C. Pichay ( 1935 ) ; “Puso ti Ina” ( “A Mother’s Heart” ) by Leon C. Pichay ( 1936 ) . When the Bannawag magazine. a sister publication of Liwayway. Bisaya and Hiligaynon. hit the streets on Nov. 3. 1934. Iloko literature reached a promontory. Many Ilokanos started to compose literary pieces. The early Bannawag short narratives showed sustained growing. The short narratives written in the 1920s were hapless imitations of every bit hapless American fiction. Early short narrative authors had practically no literary background in their efforts.

The growing of the short narrative was non evident until Bannawag resumed publication in 1947. Most of the narratives published dealt with subjects of war ; guerilla activities. Nipponese atrociousnesss. slaying. loot and decease. By the latter portion of the decennary. authors of different ages emerged. and from their ranks came narratives that were less long-winded. tighter. and with more believable word picture than those written antecedently. While many articles have been written by Ilokanos and non-Ilokanos about the Ilocos Region. few scholarly surveies have been conducted.

Among these bookmans were Leopoldo Y. Yabes of the University of the Philippines. who made a brief study of Iloko literature in 1934. His findings showed that Iloko literature began with Pedro Bucaneg. In 1940. Thomas B. Alcid of the University of Santo Tomas made a survey on the Iloko prose fiction and discussed the Iloko short narrative and the Iloko novel and their possibilities in Filipino literature. His survey showed that the short narratives and novels at that clip were still immature and needed more betterment. In 1954. Mercedes F. Guerrero of the Manuel L.

Quezon Educational Institution ( now MLQU ) made a masteral thesis titled “Critical Analysis of the Outstanding Iloco Short Stories Published in the Bannawag from 1948 to 1952. ” Her findings showed that the Iloko narratives offer a mine of information about the ideals and imposts of the Filipino people. In the show of emotions and feelings. the Iloko writer has been free or self-generated in covering with the life he portrayed. Most frequently he has been compassionate with his characters. He has treated a broad assortment of topics that there is no of import topographic point of Filipino life that has non been depicted.

There are narratives on mere piddling affairs every bit good as their ain nation-slaking topics. These are narratives about individuals. about animate beings. about topographic points and about events. Guerrero besides found out that the Ilokano writer served his society by: 1. ) Continuing the ideals. imposts and traditions of the people. 2. ) Bringing out the societal consciousness of the era–its temper. struggles. battles. and rehabilitation. 3. ) Awakening man’s esthesias to the joys. sorrows. loves. hates and green-eyed monsters of the people. 4.

) Projecting off sectional sentiments and biass and conveying about Fuller apprehension of the different cultural groups. A related literature published by Dr. Marcelino A. Foronda. Jr. in 1967. coroneted “Dallang: An Introduction to Philippine Literature in Iloko. ” discussed the traits and features of the Ilokanos. Of their literature. he stated: “… The Ilokano linguistic communication is so extremely developed as to hold produced the greatest figure of printed plants in any Filipino linguistic communication. following to Tagalog. Bannawag has played and still plays a major function in the development of Iloko literature.

At present. it publishes verse forms ( daniw ) . short narratives ( sarita ) . novels ( nobela ) . essays ( salaysay ) . cartoon strips. lifes. folk tales and many others including what some call avant garde literary end product. It is the lone magazine where Ilokano authors hope to print most of their Hagiographas. During the magazine’s babyhood old ages in the 1930s. most of its contents were interlingual renditions from the Liwayway magazine save a novel by Hermogenes F. Belen titled “Nadaraan a Linnaaw” ( Blood-stained Dew ) which was serialized in 1947. Other authors at that clip included Benjamin M. Pascual. David D. Campanano. Godofredo S.

Reyes. Benito de Castro. Jose P. Acance. Benjamin Gray. Marcelino A. Foronda. Jr. In the sixtiess. verse forms. short narratives and novels published by the Bannawag became better–in workmanship. development of secret plans and subjects. among others. Writers by so. most of whom were college pupils and professionals. had a bigger library of literary books. To assist in the development of the Iloko short narrative. Bannawag launched a authorship competition in 1961. The Judgess were Prof. Santiago Alcantara of the National University. Prof. Angel C. Anden of the Manuel L. Quezon University. and Dr. Marcelino A. Foronda. Jr.

of the De La Salle University-Manila. This competition lasted until 1970. One of the Judgess said the quality of Iloko short narratives was competitory with those written in English. Before the martial-law epoch. most of the verse forms. narratives and novels dwelt on political agitation and protests. like mass meetings and presentations by pupils. professionals and workers against the authorities. Ilokano authors have besides published their plants in foreign states. One of the most popular writers of Ilocano lineage abroad was the late Carlos Bulosan. a California immigrant born to Ilokano parents in Pangasinan.

And presently. the most internationally translated Filipino writer is an Ilokano from Rosales. Pangasinan–Francisco Sionil Jose. popularly known as F. Sionil Jose. He is celebrated for his Rosales saga. a five-novel work about an Ilokano kin. virtually documenting Filipino history from Spanish clip to the old ages of the Marcos disposal. The novels. translated in approximately 22 linguistic communications. are circulated and read around the universe. Back place. many Iloko authors have won major awards in the one-year Palanca Awards. the most esteemed and most anticipated of all literary competitions in the Philippines.

These celebrated winners’ names include Reynaldo A. Duque. Ricarte Agnes. Aurelio S. Agcaoili. Lorenzo G. Tabin. Jaime M. Agpalo Jr. . Prescillano N. Bermudez. William V. Alvarado. Maria Fres-Felix. Clarito G. Francia. Arnold Pascual Jose. Eden Aquino Alviar. Severino Pablo. Ariel S. Tabag. Daniel L. Nesperos. Roy V. Aragon. Danilo Antalan. Joel B. Manuel and others.

B ) Central Visayas Region Cebuano literature. every bit much as most literature of the Philippines. started with fabrications and fables of pre-colonial Philippines down to the Mexican ( New Spain ) and Spanish influences. Although being of a pre-hispanical authorship system in Luzon is attested. there is small cogent evidence that baybayin ( sometimes mistakenly called alibata ) was widespread in the Visayas. Most of the literature produced during was unwritten.

They were documented by the Spanish Jesuit Fr. Ignatio Francisco Alzinal. During Spanish times. the spiritual subject was prevailing. Novenas and gozos. most notably the Bato Balani for the Sto. Nino. The literature during this clip was preponderantly propagandistic. At this clip. the Cebuanos were still huming with bitterness at the American treachery of their hopes and the new colonisers were revenging with limitations on the freedom of looks.

The first written Cebuano short narrative is Maming. by Vicente Sotto. The Father of Cebuano Literature. The narrative was published in the first issue ( July 16. 1900 ) of his Ang Suga. Two old ages subsequently Sotto wrote. directed. and produced the first Cebuano drama. Elena. During the American period. Ang Suga became the medium for publication of Cebuano authors. A community of authors easy grow. to include the names of Florentino Rallos. Filomeno Veloso. Marcial Velez. Timoteo Castro. Segundo Cinco. Vicente Ranudo. Dionisio Jakosalem. Selestino Rodriguez. Filomeno Roble. Juan Villagonzalo. Leoncio Avila and Filemon Sotto.

( Most of these people were recognized for their accomplishments by the coevals right after them. as evidenced by the usage of their names for major streets of the City of Cebu. but their function in the promotion of Cebuano civilization is lost to subsequent generations. ) Four typical novels on the love subject written by popular authors during the American period would stand for the pre-war writers’ subconscious but corporate attempts in making a common nucleus of significances and values in the face of new American civilization.

These are Felicitas by Uldarico Alviola in 1912. Mahinuklugong Paglubong Kang Alicia ( “The Sad Burial of Alicia” ) by Vicente Garces in 1924. Apdo sa Kagul-anan ( “Bitterness of Sorrow” ) by Angel Enemecio in 1928-1929. and Ang Tinagoan ( “The Secret” ) by Vicente Rama in 1933-1934.

While Felicitas and Paglubong assert the value of matrimonial fidelity and Apdo that of feminine celibacy. Tinagoan challenges the emergent value that tolerates divorce. Such novels were seen as fictionalized renderings of their writers’ base or traditions and patterns which were subjected to debate in the school phase and within the pages of periodicals.

The pre-war period in the Philippines is sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of Vernacular Literature. with the 1930s taging a boundary between two sorts of popular authorship: the preponderantly propagandistic and the more commercialised dreamer literature that proliferated since the Commonwealth. In the twelvemonth 1930. Bisaya Magasin started printing. In 1936 Cebuano authors started printing anthologies ; readers engaged in recreational literary unfavorable judgment ; and ailments of plagiarism livened up the hebdomadal intelligence. Periodicals that featured originative authorship mushroomed. although most of these were ephemeral.

The by and large considered first feminist Cebuano novel. Lourdes by Gardeopatra G. Quijano was serialized in the period May 26 to September 23. 1939 in Bag-ong Kusog ( literary “New Force” ) . the most popular pre-war periodical. It has been predicted by no less than the late novelist and Philippine National Artist for Literature N. V. M. Gonzalez that Philippine literature in English will decease. go forthing the regional literature ( Ilokano. Waray. etc. ) . In the instance of Cebuano literature. this has been the instance. Some of the outstanding authors and poets in the Visayas and Mindanao who used to compose in English have shifted to Cebuano.

Among them are Davao-based Macario Tiu. Don Pag-usara. and Satur Apoyon. and Cebu-based Ernesto Lariosa ( a Focus Philippines Poetry Awardee in 1975 ) and Rene Amper ( a two-time Palanca awardee for English poesy. These giants of Cebuano literature are now on a regular basis lending to Bisaya Magasin ; their displacement to Cebuano authorship has influenced immature Cebu and Mindanao-based authors in English to follow suit ( among them are Michael Obenieta. Gerard Pareja. Adonis Durado. Januar Yap. Delora Gross saless. Cora Almerino and Raul Moldez ) . In 1991. Cebuano poet Ernesto Lariosa received a grant from the Cultural Center of the Philippines.

He used the grant to present the 4-s in Cebuano poesy: societal sense. sound and narrative. The linguistic communication he used was slack. devoid of strong metaphors. He used the linguistic communication of the place and of the streets. Writer-scholar Dr. Erlinda Alburo. manager of the Cebuano Studies Center of the University of San Carlos noted in a forum sponsored by the university’s theatre club in 2003 that the immature authors ( those given above ) have given a new voice to Cebuano fiction. They have introduced modern authorship manners. experimented with the Cebuano linguistic communication and explored subjects which have ne’er been elaborated before by their predecessors.

There are now emerging figure of publications having fiction and poesy in Cebuano. The ownership of the de-facto literary diary. Bisaya Magasin. was transferred from the Chinese-owned Liwayway Publishing. Inc. to Napoleon Rama’s Manila Bulletin Publishing in 2003. showing a alteration in layout. credence policies. and an addition in contributors’ fees. Aside from the reinvigoration of Bisaya Magasin. Cebu-based publication houses have besides started yellow journalisms in the linguistic communication ( Banat News of Freeman Publications and SunStar SuperBalita of SunStar Publications ) .

This yellow journalisms have bigger circulation than their English opposite numbers. There are besides unconfirmed studies that Dr. Mel M. Allego. a elephantine in Cebuano literature. will be returning from the United States in 2007 and will get down his ain circular in Cebuano. The U. P. National Writers Workshop every October and the Iligan National Writers Workshop every summer have reserved slots for Cebuano authors. In every edition of these workshops. there are Cebuano plants that are being dissected or discussed by the panellists.

In 1998. the Carlos Palanca Memorial Awards for Literature opened the Cebuano short narrative class. degree Celsius ) Eastern Visayas Region Modern East Visayan literature. peculiarly Waray. revolves around poesy and play produced between the 1900s and the present. The booming economic system of the part and the visual aspect of local publications get downing in 1901 with the publication of An Kaadlawon. the first Waray newspaper. saw the flourishing of poesy in Waray. In Samar. Eco de Samar y Leyte. a long running magazine in the 1900s. published articles and literary plants in Spanish. Waray and English.

A notable characteristic of this publication was its poesy subdivision. An Tadtaran. which presented a series of satirical verse forms that attacked the altering values of the people at the clip. Eco similarly published occasional and spiritual verse forms. In Leyte. An Lantawan. which has extant transcripts from 1931 to 1932. printed spiritual and occasional poesy. It besides published satirical verse form of Bagong Katipunero. Luro. Datoy Anilod. Marpahol. Vatchoo ( Vicente I. de Veyra ) . Julio Carter ( Iluminado Lucente ) . Ben Tamaka ( Eduardo Makabenta ) . and Kalantas ( Casiano Trinchera ) .

Under these anonym. poets criticized corrupt authorities functionaries. made merriment of people’s frailties. and attacked local adult females for following modern ways of societal behaviour. . With the organisation of the Sanghiran San Binisaya in 1909. authors every bit good as the illustrados in the community banded together for the intent of cultivating the Waray linguistic communication. Under the leading of Norberto Romualdez Sr. Sanghiran’s members had literary leading lights that included Iluminado Lucente. Casiano Trinchera. Eduardo Makabenta. Francisco Alvarado. Juan Ricacho. Francisco Infectana. Espiridion Brillo. and statesman Jaime C.

de Veyra. For a clip. Sanghiran was responsible for the drift it gave to new authorship in the linguistic communication. The period 1900 to the late 1950ss witnessed the finest Waray verse form of Casiano Trinchera. Iluminado Lucente. Eduardo Makabenta. and the outgrowth of the poesy of Agustin El O’Mora. Pablo Rebadulla. Tomas Gomez Jr. . Filomeno Quimbo Singzon. Pedro Separa. Francisco Aurillo. and Eleuterio Ramoo. Trinchera. Lucente. and Makabenta were peculiarly at their best when they wrote satirical poesy.

The turning credence of English as official linguistic communication in the state strengthened these writers’ trueness to the cultural female parent lingua as their medium for their art. The publication of Leyte News and The Leader in the mid-twentiess. the first local documents in English. brought about the increasing legitimization of English as a medium of communicating. the gradual supplanting of Waray and eventual disappearing of its poesy from the pages of local publications. Where local newspapers no longer served as vehicles for written poesy in Waray. the function was assumed by MBC’s DYVL and local wireless Stationss in the 1970ss.

Up to the present clip. poesy sent to these Stationss are written largely by local common people – husbandmans. homemakers. attorneies. authorities clerks. instructors. and pupils. A common quality of their poesy is that they tend to be occasional. didactic. and traditional in signifier. The schooled authors in the part. unlike the local common people poets. make non compose in Waray nor Filipino. Most of them write in English although recently there has been a romantic return to their cultural female parent lingua as the medium for their poesy. Waray play was one time a fixture of town fetes.

Its authorship and presentation were normally commissioned by the hermano city manager as portion of celebrations to entertain the components of the town. Town fetes in a manner sustained the work of the dramatist. In recent old ages. this is no longer the instance. If of all time a drama gets staged presents. it is basically drawn from the pool of dramas written earlier in the tradition of the hadi-hadi and the zarzuela. Harmonizing to Filipinas. an authorization on the Waray zarzuela. the earliest zarzuela production involved that of Norberto Romualdez’ An Pagtabang ni San Miguel. which was staged in Tolosa. Leyte in 1899.

The zarzuela as a dramatic signifier enthralled audiences for its musicalness and dramatic action. Among the notable dramatists of this genre were Norberto Romualdez Sr. . Alfonso Cinco. Iluminado Lucente. Emilio Andrada Jr. . Francisco Alvarado. Jesus Ignacio. Margarita Nonato. Pedro Acerden. Pedro Separa. Educardo Hilbano. Moning Fuentes. Virgilio Fuentes. and Agustin El O’Mora. Of these dramatists. Iluminado Lucente stands out in footings of literary achievement. He wrote about 30 dramas and minutes