The Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector Computer Science Essay

Abstract- Mobile Ad-hoc web ( MANET ) is a self-configuring web formed with wireless links by a aggregation of nomadic nodes without utilizing any fixed substructure or centralised direction. In November 2001 the MANET ( Mobile Ad-hoc Networks ) Working Group for routing of the IEFT community has published the first version of the AODV Routing Protocol ( Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector ) . AODV belongs to the category of Distance Vector Routing Protocols ( DV ) . AODV is an ‘on demand routing protocol ‘ with little hold. That means that paths are merely established when needed to cut down traffic operating expense. AODV supports Unicast, Broadcast and Multicast without any farther protocols. In this paper we present simulation analysis of the AODV Protocol comparing 45 & A ; 25 nodes set up, with profile constellation and application constellation, mobility constellation & A ; a waiter ” utilizing ‘Opnet simulator ‘ .

Index Footings: AODV Protocol, MANET SCENARIOS, OPNET Simulation.

I. Introduction

Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector ( AODV ) routing protocol is a reactive routing protocol that creates a way between beginning and to destination merely when required. Paths are non established until any node sends route find message that the node want to pass on or convey informations with other node in the web. Routing information is stored in beginning node and finish node, intermediate nodes covering with informations transmittal. The AODV reactive routing protocol requests a path when needed and does non keep a complete list of all possible paths. It supports the usage of symmetric links and sporadically transmits hello messages to detect and keep links. In general, when a beginning node needs to set up a path to some finish node, it broadcasts a ROUTE REQUEST message to its neighbours.

This Approach reduces the memory operating expense, minimisation of the web resources, and runs good in high mobility scenario. The communicating between nodes involves chief three processs known as way find, Path constitution and way care. Three types of control messages are used to run the algorithm, i.e. Route Request ( RREQ ) , Route Reply ( RREP ) and Route Error ( RERR ) .

Fig 1: AODV packages routing form

When the beginning node wants to direct some informations Ts o the finish node, Source will publish the path find process. The beginning node will air path petition packages to all its accessible neighbours ‘ . The intermediate node having petition ( RREQ ) will look into the petition whether he is finish or non. If the intermediate node is the finish node, will answer with a path answer message ( RREP ) . If non the finish node, the petition will be forwarded to other neighbour nodes. Before send oning the package, each node shops the broadcast identifier and the node figure from which the petition came. Timer is used by the intermediate nodes to cancel any entry when no answer is received for the petition. The broadcast identifier, beginning ID are used to observe whether the node has received the path petition message antecedently or non. It prevent from the excess petition receiving in same nodes. The beginning node may have more in that instance it will find subsequently which message will be selected on the footing of hop counts. When any nexus interruptions down due to the node mobility, the node will annul the routing tabular array. All finishs will go unapproachable because of loss of the nexus. Then it will make a path mistake ( RERR ) message. The node sends the RERR upstream to the beginning node. When the beginning receives the Route answer message, it may reinitiate path find if it still requires the path.

II. AODV Route Establishment form

It is a reactive routing protocol, intending that it establishes a path to a finish merely on demand. In contrast, the most common routing protocols of the Internet are proactive, intending they find routing waies independently of the use of the waies. AODV is, as the name indicates, a distance-vector routing protocol. AODV avoids the counting-to-infinity job of other distance-vector protocols by utilizing sequence Numberss on path updates, a technique pioneered by DSDV. AODV is capable of both unicast and multicast routing.

III. Analyzing MANET Performance over AODV Protocol:

This research analysis is carried out by utilizing distinct event simulation package “ operational web rating tool ” this is the most extensively used simulator based on Microsoft Windowss platform by which most of routing parametric quantities can be analyzed when compared to other commercial simulators available. Here the web apparatus done for analysing AODV protocol for two different big & A ; little scenarios are as follows “ wireless waiter, profile constellation, application constellation, mobility constellation and two different set of workstations i.e. ( 45 nodes big scenario & A ; 25 nodes little scenario ) .the parametric quantities which has been used are as follows.

Simulation parametric quantity



OPNET 14.5


900X900 ( m )

Network size

45 nodes big graduated table,

25 nodes little graduated table

Mobility Model

Random manner point

Traffic Type

FTP Comparison

Simulation Time

300 sec

Address Mode

Car assigned ipv4 to all.

Packet Reception power threshold


IV. Experimental Performance prosodies:

We have analyzed the public presentation of an AODV protocol by two different apparatuss of 45 big nodes & A ; 25 little nodes to measure the traffic parametric quantity in presence of beginning & A ; finish on same distance for both scenarios. Initially we carried out foremost scenario as fewer nodes, as they have been configured in first scenario & A ; larger nodes have been configured in 2nd scenario. Here we have assigned ip reference for beginning & A ; finish nodes, the staying nodes have car IP turn toing assignment separately.

Fig 3: Scenario holding 45 nodes

( MANET workstations )

Fig 4: Scenario holding 25 nodes

( MANET workstations )

Fig 5: Car delegating IPV4 turn toing to all working nodes.

Fig 6: Properties of given nomadic nodes for both ( 45 & A ; 25 ) big and little graduated table MANET scenarios.

Mobile node attributes & A ; server node properties are meant for puting up different property values which will be helpful, ushers & A ; operates the workstations & A ; server as per the property scenes assign to a given list of work Stationss & A ; waiter.

Fig 7: Properties of a given MANET Server node

Fig 8: Consequences statistical choice with regard to File Transfer Protocol.

Fig 9: Comparing the throughput of “ 45 & A ; 25 ” MANET nodes scenarios, utilizing AODV Routing protocol.

Fig ( 9 ) shows the throughput comparing of two different webs with capacity of 45 nodes & A ; 25 nodes each, here its clear that throughput of larger nodes is more so that of lesser nodes ( 25-nodes ) with regard to simulation parametric quantities stated.

Fig 10: Comparison consequence in the hold of package transportation for given scenarios with regard to the given tonss of “ 45 & A ; 25 ” MANET nodes.

Here Fig ( 10 ) , ensue provinces that the hold in informations transmittal gets increase as there is an addition in nodes i.e. ( 6.0 m/sec informations hold is for AODV protocol with 45 nodes & A ; 2.0 m/sec informations hold is for 25 nodes AODV configured web ) which in title increases the traffic of a given web. Lesser nodes generates less hold for informations transmittal in an AODV routing Protocol when compared to the scenario with big figure of nodes when specified and conducted via file transportation protocol for a given compared scenario.

V. Decision:

The focussed and cardinal observation of the research paper is as follows:

In this paper the public presentation of AODV routing Protocol is made under a given traffic burden on FTP, node mobility is of 10m/sec, The fake consequence of two different scenarios with 45 nodes & A ; 25 nodes web apparatus by implementing AODV protocol in an “ OPNET ” which is a web simulation tool and here we conclude that with lesser node size AODV gives impressive consequences in hold prosodies but for throughput and routing tonss, AODV performs good for larger nodes web size as the public presentation consequences itself speaks about it. As the through put is considerable good utilizing AODV protocol for big scenarios.

VI. Recognition

The writers would wish to thank OPNET for patterning tool support through their OPNET University Program. Author is grateful to her girl “ aisha siddiqua ” for her immense love & A ; support. Writers are even grateful to VREC College Management for there utmost support.

VII. Mentions

[ 1 ] . Johnson David B, Maltz David A, Hu Yih-Chun. The Dynamic Source Routing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks [ DB/OL ] file transfer protocol: //, 2007.2/2008.1

[ 2 ] . M..Hassain, MohamedI. Youssef, Mohamed M. Zahra, ”Evaluation of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Real Simulation Environments ” , Electronics and Electrical Communications Department, Faculty of Engineering, AL-AZHAR University Cairo, Egypt.

[ 3 ] . M..Rajput, P.Khatri, A.Shastri and K.Solanki, “ Comparison of Ad-hoc Reactive Routing Protocols utilizing OPNET Modeler ” , IEEE Proceedings 2010.

[ 4 ] . A. K. Gupta, H. Sadawarti and A. K. Verma, “ Performance Analysis of AODV, DSR & A ; TORA Routing Protocols, ” IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, No.2, April 2010.

[ 5 ] . Md. Anis ur Rahman, Md. Shohidul Islam, Alex Talevski, ”Performance Measurement of Various Routing Protocols in Ad-hoc Network ” .

[ 6 ] Abdallah Rasheed Khader Mohammad, ” Exploration and Comparison of Several AODV Executions: A Survey ”

[ 7 ] . Krishna Gorantala, “ Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks ”

[ 8 ] . Wireless Communication Technologies Group, Simulation theoretical account

Manetroutingprotocol.http: // ( September 10, 2004 ) .

[ 9 ] . Park and Corson, A Performance Comparison of the Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm and Ideal Link-State Routing ” . Proceedings of IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communication’98, pp. 592-598, Athens, Greece, June 1998

Writers ‘ Profile.

Writer 1:

Sarah Khan, M.TECH ( Computer Science ) , Associate Professor, Dept of CSE, Vijay college of technology for adult females, Nizamabad ( Dist ) , A.P, India. She is an writer of six research documents, with six documents in international conferences & A ; international diaries, her country of involvement is in “ Ad-hoc networking, radio communications ” .

Electronic mail: Siddiqui.sarah04 @

Writer 2:

M.A Siddique, M.Tech ( CSE ) , is working as an Associate Professor, Dept of CSE, Vijay Rural Engineering College, Nizambad ( Dist ) , A.P, India. He has published about six ( 6 ) research documents in international conferences & A ; international diaries ; His country of involvement is in “ Ad-hoc Networking, Wireless Communications, and Computer Networking ” .

Electronic mail: Ahtesham.siddique @

Writer 3:

Dr. P. Sammulal received PhD in Computer Science and Engineering from Osmania University in 2010. He received his B.E grade from Osmania University in 2000 and M.Tech degree from JNT University in Computer scientific discipline and engg. , in 2002. He has published about 16 documents in International/national conferences and International/national diaries. His current research involvements are distributed/parallel computer science, Cluster calculating, Grid computer science, Network security and Data Mining. At present he is working as an Assistant Professor in JNTUH College of Engineering, Nachupally, karimnager ( dist ) , India.

Electronic mail: Sammulalporika @

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