The human development index
Comparing The Old United Nation’s HumanDevelopment Index To The New One
The United Nations is an international organization established immediately after World War 2 to maintain international peace and security and to achieve cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. The United Nation’s Charter, which is the organization’s governing treaty, was first drawn up in 1945 at a meeting held in San Francisco. The principle organs of the United Nations charter are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice, and the Secretariat. Other than trying to maintain peace and order around the world, the United Nations also gives an annual report of each country’s economic and social status in the world in order to find the problems that a country might be facing. The United Nations uses the human development index to measure the quality of life in different places in the world. The human development index is made up of indicators, which are elements of the standard of living that are used to measure contrasts between societies. Each indicator in the human development index measures and compares a specific element of standard of living in a country. In this essay, we will compare the old human development index to the new and improved human development index. We will also learn about Canada’s ranking in the world and some of the problems Canada is facing today.
The old human development index, used by the United Nations consisted of three main indicators. The first indicator used in the old human development index was the infant mortality rate. The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths of infants (Children under one year of age ) per thousand of total live births. The lower the infant mortality of a country is, the more developed that country’s health and medical system is. Therefor we could say that developed countries such as Canada, have a very low infant mortality rate, compared to the less developed countries. This is mainly because developed countries have the money and the technology to build medical facilities that use technologically advanced machines which help improve a countries health and medical systems, thus causing a lower infant mortality rate . Another factor that affects the infant mortality rate, is the wealth and economic prosperity of a country. For instance, if a country has a good economy, there would be a less chance of people of that country dying at early ages because of hunger or malnutrition.
The second indicator used in the old human development index was the Life expectancy. Life expectancy is the number of years a person is expected to live. Developed countries usually have greater life expectancies than the less developed countries. For example, Afghanistan, which is one of the least developed countries in the world has a life expectancy of 46.5 years while Canada, which is a developed country has an average life expectancy of 79.1 years. One factor that could affect the life expectancy of a country is the environment the population of that country lives in. For instance if the people of a country live in a place where there is not much sanitation, there is a good chance that a large number of people in that country would die as a result of diseases, caused by bacteria.
The third indicator used in the old human development index was the literacy rate. Literacy rate is the percentage of the adult population who have at least the minimal ability to read. The literacy rate of a country is measured using the International Adult Literacy Survey. The International Adult Literacy Survey measures “prose”, “document” and “quantitative” skills. This survey is divided down into 5 levels, with level 1 being the category with the lowest skill and level 5 being the highest. Developed countries usually have high literacy rates compared to the developing countries which is one of the main reasons for their success. Countries who have high literacy rates are more educated and therefor have the knowledge required to survive in the global economy. Unlike developed countries, the less developed countries have low literacy rates. This is perhaps